Common Internet Connection Bandwidth

pcbinary June 27, 2021 0 Comments



Common Internet Connection Bandwidth


Modem / Dialup| 56 kbit/s —|— ADSL Lite| 1.5 Mbit/s T1/DS1| 1.544 Mbit/s E1 / E-carrier| 2.048 Mbit/s ADSL1| 8 Mbit/s Ethernet| 10 Mbit/s Wireless 802.11b| 11 Mbit/s ADSL2+| 24 Mbit/s T3/DS3| 44.736 Mbit/s Wireless 802.11g| 54 Mbit/s Fast Ethernet| 100 Mbit/s OC3| 155 Mbit/s Wireless 802.11n| 600 Mbit/s OC12| 622 Mbit/s Gigabit Ethernet| 1 Gbit/s OC48| 2.5 Gbit/s USB 3.0| 5 Gbit/s OC192| 9.6 Gbit/s 10 Gigabit Ethernet, USB 3.1| 10 Gbit/s 100 Gigabit Ethernet| 100 Gbit/s

Mobile Broadband Connection Bandwidth


| Down (Mbit/s)| Up (Mbit/s) —|—|— 2G| GSM CSD| 0.0096 CDPD| up to 0.0192 GSM GPRS (2.5G)| 0.056 – 0.115 GSM EDGE (2.75G)| up to 0.237 3G| UMTS W-CDMA| 0.4 UMTS HSPA| 14.4| 5.8 UMTS TDD| 16 CDMA2000 1xRTT| 0.3| 0.15 CDMA2000 EV-DO| 2.5-4.9| 0.15-1.8 GSM EDGE-Evolution| 1.6| 0.5 4G| HSPA+| 21-672| 5.8-168 Mobile WiMAX (802.16)| 37-365| 17-376 LTE| 100-300| 50-75 LTE-Advanced Moving Fast| 100 LTE-Advanced Stationary or Moving Slow| up to 1000 MBWA (802.20)| 80 5G| HSPA+| 400-25000| 200-3000 Mobile WiMAX (802.16)| 300-700| 186-400 5G| 400-3000| 500-1500Difference Between Bandwidth and FrequencyBandwidth and frequency both are the measuring terms of networking. The basicdifference between bandwidth and frequency is that bandwidth measures theamount of data transferred per second whereas the frequency measure the numberof oscillation of the data signal per second. Let us study the comparisonchart of the bandwidth and frequency.

Definition of Bandwidth


Bandwidth is a term in networking used to measure the maximum amount of datathat can be transmitted in per unit time. Bandwidth can be explained with thehelp of an example. Let us imagine that the bandwidth is a highway and numberof vehicles on the highway is the amount of data being transmitted per unittime.More the bandwidth, more the amount of data can be transmitted at per unittime. Bandwidth can also be explained as the range of signal between thehigher (maximum) and lower(minimum) frequency that a signal can contain.The formula to calculate the bandwidth is as follow:

Key Differences Between Bandwidth and Frequency


1. Bandwidth measures the amount of data that a connection can transmit in a per unit time whereas, Frequency is a number of data packets arrived in per unit time. 2. Bandwidth is measured in bits/sec whereas, frequency is measured in hertz.

Here is our list of the best network throughput monitoring and testing


tools for 2020: 1. SolarWinds Network Bandwidth Analyzer Pack EDITOR’S CHOICE Easily monitor network traffic, identify the top talkers on your network, and prioritize bandwidth utilization. 2. SolarWinds Real-Time Bandwidth Monitor (FREE TOOL) Monitor bandwidth usage in real-time; offers easy to understand graphs. 3. ExtraHop Enterprise solution with the ability to automatically detect and correlate network issues 4. Comparitech Speed Test Free and simple test that’s perfect if you just need to check one or a handful of devices. 5. Iperf Open-source tool used for taking active measurements of throughput on a network. 6. NetCPS – freeware bandwidth monitor. NetCPS is a Windows Command Line utility. 7. Netperf – free to use and a fairly popular tool for measuring throughput and benchmarking network speeds.Let’s dive into the basics of network throughput and then provide an overviewof some of the more popular network throughput monitoring solutions availableon the market today. You can also check out our post on bandwidth monitoringtools and learn about the difference between throughput and bandwidth.

Measurements of Network Throughput (MB vs Mb, Gigabit speeds etc)


There are multiple abbreviations thrown around when discussing throughput. Allthe different measurements somehow refer to an amount of data (usually bits orbytes) over a period of time (usually seconds). Understanding what the mostpopular measurements actually mean can help you better understand throughput.Below is a quick breakdown of some of the common measurements and terminologyrelated to throughput. * Bit – The smallest size of binary information used by computer devices. That is, the individual ones and zeros in binary math. * Byte – 8 bits * Megabit – 1 million bits * Megabyte – 1 million bytes * Gigabit – 1 billion bits * Gigabyte – 1 billion bytes * Mbps – Megabits per second * MBps – Megabytes per second * Gbps – Gigabits per second * GBps – Gigabytes per secondOne of the key takeaways here is: 1 MB is eight times more than 1 Mb. The samegoes for GB vs Gb. Keep that in mind when comparing throughput statistics andISP service plans.

Impact of latency on throughput


Latency can have a big impact on throughput. Latency is the amount of time ittakes data to traverse a given path. If we think back to our highway analogy,the amount of time it takes to travel across the highway is latency. Thatwouldn’t matter too much if all traffic was one way, but when you start tothink about, you begin to understand how it can impact throughput. TCP reliesheavily on acknowledgments, which means a receiver must acknowledge a senderfor the transmissions to proceed. If it takes a long time for the packets toget back to the sender, there will be a lot of wasted time and lowerthroughput.High latency can occur for a variety of reasons, from bottlenecks to thenumber of hops between destinations to physical distance between sites.

Impact of packet loss on throughput


If a TCP packet is dropped, it will need to be resent. This redundancynegatively impacts throughput. A sender will know that a packet needs to beresent based on timeouts or lack of acknowledgment for a given packet(s).Packet loss can occur for a number of reasons including high latency, jitter(inconsistent speeds on a connection), hardware and connection issues, orsoftware bugs.

What can measuring network throughput help you do?


In a word: measuring throughput helps you resolve complaints about the networkbeing “slow”. This is because throughput measurements help you betterunderstand a network connection and its real-world performance. Throughputmonitoring can help with: * Identifying bottlenecks * Comparing real-world performance to SLAs * Network design and planning * Creating baselines * Troubleshooting

Can you forecast network throughput?


Getting a baseline of your existing throughput will help you to spot peaks andtroughs in volume. If you don’t intend to add on any new services to thenetwork, your next task will be to ensure that there are is sufficientavailable capacity for trend growth in traffic volumes. If you are launchingan expansion project, then you should expect increased demand on your networkinfrastructure.In both cases, it helps to use a tool that can replay real traffic data andalso generate extra traffic volumes to check that the bandwidth that you haveavailable will be able to cope with that new demand.Capacity planning tools such as the SolarWinds Flow Tool Bundle come in handyin these testing scenarios. The Bundle includes three tools that work with theCisco-invented NetFlow v5 system. When you turn on NetFlow capabilities onyour Cisco router, it will forward all packet headers to a collector. You canalso use NetFlow to query the router and get aggregated data out of it.The Bundle includes an interface to turn the NetFlow capabilities on yourrouters on and off. A second utility will replay captured traffic around yournetwork and a third tool in the bundle will generate fake traffic to sendaround the network, testing the bandwidth capacity of all of your equipmentand network software as well.SolarWinds Flow Tool Bundle Download 100% FREE Tool Bundle

How can you improve network throughput?


With an idea of what throughput is and what affects it, we’ll now talk aboutthings that can be done to improve throughput. Again, there’s no one-size-fits-all answer; it’s important to understand the cause of your throughputproblems to effectively address them. Below are some common methods employedto improve throughput. * Increase bandwidth – Sometimes simply adding lanes to the highway is what you need. This is one of the most obvious solutions, but remember bandwidth can be expensive and might not be the root cause of your problems. Also, be sure to have the network infrastructure in place to support your bandwidth updates if you go that route. After all, a 10 Gbps connection doesn’t mean much on a network full of 100 Mbps switches. * Eliminate bottlenecks – Network bottlenecks are points on a network that causes traffic to slow down. For example, if you update your entire network to 1 Gpbs speed, an old server with a 10 Mbps network interface may create a bottleneck. * Update to fiber – Data on fiber connections move near or at the speed of light. Data on copper connections move significantly slower (for those of you into the science, it’s photon speed vs electron speed). Copper maxes out around 10 Gbps while fiber can reach terabit speeds or higher (check out this Engadget article for an example). While 10 Gbps is fine for most networks, fiber is much less susceptible to noise and can cover more ground than a comparable copper run, adding additional advantages that can help boost throughput. * Adjust MTU – Adjusting MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) sizes on a router can lead to improved throughput. For example, larger MTUs can minimize overhead and increase throughput. For more, check out this NetGear article designed to help you optimize the MTU size on a router. * Use QoS – Configuring QoS (Quality of Service) on your routers and switches is another way to improve throughput. QoS can be used to dedicate bandwidth, manage congestion, shape network traffic, and set priorities on network traffic. For a deeper dive on the topic, check out this Cisco document. QoS doesn’t necessarily improve your throughput, it can help you make sure latency-sensitive applications (VOIP, video streaming, etc.) are less affected when things slow down. * Use a CDN – A CDN (Content Delivery Network) can help get your content closer to users if you a dealing with a situation where many of your users are far from your servers (e.g. a website). Therefore, a CDN might be a great way to improve throughput. At the Human Health Project, we use CloudFlare as a CDN.

The best network throughput monitoring and testing tools


The SolarWinds Network Bandwidth Analyzer Pack is actually two SolarWindsproducts bundled together: Network Performance Monitor (NPM) and NetFlowTraffic Analyzer (NTA). You can learn more about each of these modules in ourNPM and NTA reviews.In short, NPM is one of the most popular pieces of enterprise monitoringsoftware offered by SolarWinds and does a lot of the Simple Network ManagementProtocol (SNMP) and up/down monitoring you would expect from a NetworkManagement System (NMS). Adding NTA to the mix enables support for monitoringthe various flow protocols like NetFlow, sFlow, jFlow, etc. Combined, thesetwo tools become a holistic, feature-rich, throughput monitoring solution.You can demo NTA directly from your browser here. You can also download a30-day free trial of the Network Bandwidth Analyzer Pack which includes bothtools.If you’re looking for a free tool that can help you monitor individual devicesand determine how much bandwidth they are consuming, the SolarWinds Real-TimeBandwidth Monitor may be right for you. This Windows Bandwidth monitoring tooluses SNMP (v1, v2C, and v3 are supported) traffic into and out of giveninterfaces. Scalability will likely become a problem if you are looking tomonitor all the devices on a network. If you just need to monitor a handful ofdevices to determine if you have a bandwidth hog on your network creating yournetwork throughput issues, this might be just what you need.You can download the SolarWinds Real-Time Bandwidth Monitor for free.SolarWinds Real-Time Bandwidth Monitor Download 100% FREE ToolExtraHop is an enterprise-level monitoring solution with support for advancedfeatures like contextual intelligence, forensic investigation, real-timeanalytics, and more. ExtraHop offers monitoring solutions for security,network performance, and the cloud. The section of this enterprise softwarewe’re focused on here is its network performance monitoring capabilities. Oneof the major selling points of ExtraHop’s network performance solution is theability to automatically detect and correlate network issues, which shouldhelp reduce mean time to resolution. Part its solution includes detailedmetrics and charts covering average bandwidth utilization, average throughput,throughput by protocol, “top talkers” (endpoints with the highest averagethroughput), and more. If you’re looking for an enterprise-level solution toyour throughput monitoring problems, you may want to take a look at ExtraHop.You can demo ExtraHop directly from your browser (Contact info is requested,but demo access is given immediately after).If you need to check the throughput from a given computer or mobile devicewith a web browser, our very own speed test is a great way to do so and helpraise money for charity. Our speed test will check your current downloadspeed, upload speed, and ping response times. I’ve found that online speedtests too are a good way to determine if issues you are having with a givenapp are related to your network speeds or not (e.g. to check if you meetNetflix’s Internet Connection Speed Recommendations). Additionally, for eachtest (max one per user), Comparitech will donate one cent to charity.Iperf is a free, open-source tool used for taking active measurements ofthroughput on a network. It is officially supported on CentOS, FreeBSD, andmacOS. According to its Github page, a number of other *nix based operatingsystems have been reported successfully using Iperf, and I was able to get itrunning on Linux Mint 17.1 without issue. Iperf can measure TCP (TransmissionControl Protocol, UDP (User Datagram Protocol), and SCTP (Stream ControlTransmission Protocol) throughput.Iperf uses a client/server configuration, meaning the software needs to beinstalled on both endpoints for you to measure throughput. You can downloadand install Iperf here (Note: I was able to use apt-get install iperf on Mint17.1).In the example below, I ran Iperf in server mode by executing the commandiperf –s, then connected to the server to measure TCP throughput by executingthe command iperf –c 10.0.2.15 (10.0.2.15 was the IP address of the Iperfserver). For more on Iperf, check out its Github page.NetCPS is a Windows Command Line utility that also follows the client/serverparadigm for measuring throughput. It has been around for a long time, but canstill be useful on many modern Windows operating systems (it worked well onWindows 10 for me).NetCPS is freeware, with the one exception that it is NOT permitted forgovernmental or military use. You can download, learn more about, and view thesource code of NetCPS here.In the example below, I used NetCPS to measure throughput on a local PC’sloopback address. First, from the directory where the NetCPS.exe file wasloaded, I executed the command NetCPS.exe –s to place NetCPS in server mode,then in a separate cmd.exe Window I executed the command NetCPS.exe 127.0.0.1to test the loopback IP address.NetPerf is a CLI tool used on *nix operating systems (it also compiles onWindows) similar to Iperf that was originally developed by Hewlett Packard.While it’s not technically open source, it is free to use and a fairly populartool for measuring throughput and benchmarking network speeds.For more information on Netperf, check out the manual and the Netperf Github.Like NetCPS and Iperf, Netperf uses a client/server model. You can start theserver using the command netserver –p and then connect from aclient using the command netperf –H -p. In the example below, we started the server on port 15222 froma host with IP address 10.0.2.15.

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