Different Types of Computer Networks

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Different Types of Computer Networks

Acomputer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers anddevices interconnected by communications channels that facilitatecommunications and allows sharing of resources and information amonginterconnected devices.Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics suchas medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale,topology, organizational scope, etc.Examples of different network scales are: * A local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. * A metropolitan area network (MAN), which is used for medium-sized area such as city or a state. * A wide area network (WAN), which is a network covering a large geographic area.

Computer Networks and its types

Learn: What is Computer Network? In this article, we will also discuss aboutthe various types of computer Networks? Submitted by Abhishek Jain, on August 05, 2017Computer Network is a system of interconnected computers that enable thecomputers to communicate with each other and share their resources, data andapplications. The physical location of each computer is tailored to personaland organizational needs. A network may include only personal computers or amix of PCs, minis and mainframes spanning a particular geographical area.Computer networks that are commonly used today may be classified as follows: 1. Based on geographical area: 1. Local Area Networks (LANs) 2. Wide Area Networks(WANs) 3. Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) 4. Personal Area Network (PAN) 2. Based on how computer nodes are used: 1. Client Server Networks (CSNs) 2. Peer-to-Peer Networks (PPNs) 3. Value-added Networks (VANs)

Definition of computer network

* Computer network is the product of the combination of computer technology and communication technology. * A computer network is a system that connects multiple computers, terminals and their ancillary equipment with independent working capabilities distributed in different geographical locations with communication equipment and communication lines, and configures network software to realize the sharing of computer resources.

Types of Computer Networks

Computer networks come in different typologies. A couple of which includes: * Personal Area Network (PAN) – this computer network is used by computer devices used typically by just one person. It works over a few meters. * Local Area Network (LAN) – the most used computer network covering a small area, such as a home, or business workspace. * Campus Area Network (CAN) – a collection of networks used to create a much wider coverage. It covers a limited geographical area usually academic areas. * Wide Area Network (WAN) – this computer network covers a broad area, such as regional or national boundaries. * Interconnected Network – this involves the connection of two or more different computer networks, such as the Internet, extranets, and intranets.

Computer Network Classification and Area Networks

Computer networks can be categorized in several different ways. One approachdefines the type of network according to the geographic area it spans. Localarea networks (LANs), for example, typically span a single home, school, orsmall office building, whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities,states, or even across the world. The internet is the world’s largest publicWAN.

Computer Network Hardware and Software

Special purpose communication devices including network routers, accesspoints, and network cables physically glue a network together. Networkoperating systems and other software applications generate network traffic andenable users to do useful things.

Business Computer Networks

Small and home office (SOHO) environments use technology that is similar tohome networks. Businesses often have additional communication, data storage,and security requirements that require expanding networks in different ways,particularly as the business gets larger.Whereas a home network generally functions as one LAN, a business networktends to contain multiple LANs. Companies with buildings in multiple locationsutilize wide-area networking to connect these branch offices together. Thoughalso available and used by some households, voice over IP communication,network storage, and backup technologies are prevalent in businesses. Largercompanies also maintain internal web sites, called intranets, to help withemployee business communication.

Wireless Local Area Network

Wireless LAN uses a wireless signal, rather than cables, to support devices.While there are fewer cables ran and the ability to support connection tosmartphones and tablets, a wireless LAN is often slower than a traditionalLAN.

Wide Area Network

The Wide Area Network (WAN) is the largest type of computer network and has nolimits based on geographic location. The internet itself is an example of aglobal WAN. A WAN is set up by connecting LANs and MANs via satellite ormicrowave, making it both very powerful and very expensive.

System Area Network

A System Area Network (also called a SAN) is a local network uniquely designedfor high-speed interconnection in a cluster environment. These networksinclude server-to-server, processor-to-processor, and Storage Area Networksall operating as one entity.

Wide Area Network (WAN) Example

1. A multi-national firm has regional offices in different countries. However, all these offices are working in a coordinated manner to operate in the world. For proper coordination, all such regional offices need access to information stored in company`s server computer. For facilitating operation all these offices need to connect to a Wide Area Network. 2. The Internet we use today is probably the best example of this WAN network. A lot of us define the Internet as huge source of information. Information is placed on different server computers. We don`t know about the location of any server computer alternatively known as Web Server. But we can remotely connect to these web servers and gather information that we need.

Computer Networks in General

A computer network is an interconnection of nodes either short or longdistances between two or more computers that are linked up to sharingresources. Computers can be linked in many ways such as through cables,telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared beams. There are threebasic types of networks: Local Area Networks (LANs), Metropolitan AreaNetworks (MANs), and Wide Area Networks (WANs). There are many types ofconfigurations of how computer devices are connected to each other callednetwork topologies with some common ones such as Mesh, Star, Ring, Bus, andFully Connected topologies. Most common is the Star network topology where alldevices are connected to central switches.

Computer Networks

Q1. Define a Computer network?A computer network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers anddevices to exchange information or share resources.Q2. Explain different components of a computer Network.1. Host /Node / WorkstationHost or node or workstation refers to the computers that are attached to anetwork.2. ServerComputer that facilities sharing of data ,software ,and hardware resources(e.g. printers, modems etc.) on a network is called server.3. ClientA client computer is a computer that can request for some services from aserver.4. NIU (Network Interface Unit)NIU is also known as NIC(Network Interface Card) or LAN Card. It is a devicethat works as an intermediator between computer and the network.LAN Card can be wired as well as wireless. 5. Hub/switchHub/ Switch is a device used to interconnect computers on a network.6. Communication channelCommunication channel is way/method to provide communication between computersand devices on a network. .Communication channel is of two types: a. Wired Communication channels Wired communication channels include cables to interconnect computers on anetwork. There are basically three types of wired communication channels:i. Twisted pair cableii. Coaxial cableiii. Optical fiber cable.b. Wireless Communication channelWireless communication channels include wireless methods to interconnectcomputers on a network. Various types of wireless communication channels are:i. Radio wavesii. Satelliteiii. Microwaveiv. Infrared wavesv. Laser7. SoftwareCommunication is not possible on a network without software components.Different software components include network protocols ,network operatingsystem etc.8. Network ServicesThey refef to the applications that provide different functionalities over anetwork. They include DNS(Domain Name System), file sharing ,VoIP(voice overIP) etc. Q3. What are advantages of a Computer Network1. Resource sharing : We can share hardware devices, softwares as well asdata on a network. 2. Communication Medium : Network can provide communication between differentcomputers attached to a network.3. Reduced Cost : Sharing of resources helps in reducing hardware andsoftware cost4. Centralized Control: We can centrally control the computers attached to anetwork.5. Central storage of data: We can save data of entire network on singlecomputer. It helps in removing duplication of data as well as maintainingintegrity of data.Q4. What is ARPANET?ARPANET stands for Advanced Research Project Agency Network. It was the firstnetwork developed by DOD (Department of Defence) America).Q5. Explain different types of computer Networks ? LAN| MAN| WAN| PAN —|—|—|— 1. It stands for Local Area Network| 1. It stands for Metropolitan AreaNetwork| 1. It stands for Wide Area Network| 1. It stands for Personal AreaNetwork 2. It is a network within a small area such as building.| 2. It is a networkwithin a city.| 2. It is a network across cities, countries and continents.|2. It is a network within a very small area upto 10 meters. 3. Twisted pair cable is preferably used for communication.| 3. Coaxialcable is preferably used for communication..| 3. Optical fiber or satelliteare used for communication| 3. Communication is made using bluetooth,infrared or wireless devices. 4. Example: Computer Lab| 4. Example: Cable TV Network| 4. Example: Mobilephone network| 4. Example: Wireless headphone, wireless printer. Q6. What is Communication channel?Communication channel is way/method to provide communication between computersand devices on a network.Q7. What are types of Communication channel?

Classification of Computer Networks based on network topology

Based on [the network topology], computer networks can be distinguished:bus topologystar topologyring topologyThe purpose of a computer network:1. Networks allow more efficient management of resources: for example, manyusers can share a single printer with high quality, compared to using lowquality printers at each desk. In addition, software license network can becheaper than a separate stand-alone license for the same number of users, andshare the use of the CPU, Memory, and hard disk.2. Networks help maintain reliable information and to keep up-to-date: thecentralized data storage system managed allows multiple users to access datafrom a variety of different locations, and restrict access to the data whileit is being processed.3. Networks help speed up the process of sharing the data (data sharing).Transfer data on the network is always faster than other means of data sharingnetwork instead.4. Networks allow groups working to communicate more efficiently. Letters anddelivery of electronic messages are the substance of most of the networksystem, in addition to scheduling systems, project monitoring, onlineconferencing and groupware, which all help teams work more productively.5. Network helps businesses to serve their clients more effectively. Remoteaccess to centralized data allows employees to serve clients in the field andthe clients can directly communicate with the supplier.6. In order to achieve the same goal, every part of a computer network andprovide the service requested. The party requesting the service is called theclient and the service is called service (server). This architecture is calledclient-server systems, and is used in almost all computer networkapplications.

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