How Computer Networks Work Devices

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Uses of computer communication


* Internet – A worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educations, and individual * Web – Worldwide collection of electronic documents on the internet that users access through Web browser. * E-Mail – Or Electronic mail, is type of mail message that is sent through the network. * Instant messaging – A Real-time internet communication service that notifies you when one or more people are online,then allows you to exchange messages, pictures, files, audio and video. * Chat rooms – A Real-time typed in conversation that takes place on a computer connected to a network, that also allows you to exchange messages, pictures, files, audio and video. * Newsgroup – Online areas in which user’s have written discussion about a particular subject. * Internet telephony – A conversation takes place over the internet using a telephone connected to a desktop computer. * FTP – Internet standard that permits or allows user to upload or download files. * Web Folder – Known as HTTP server, allows users publish documents and other files. * Video conferencing – Realtime meeting over two person, use the internet to transmit audio and video signal. * Fax Machine or Computer fax/modem – Transmits and receives documents over the phone line.

LAN(Local Area Network)


* Local Area Network is a group of computers connected to each other in a small area such as building, office. * LAN is used for connecting two or more personal computers through a communication medium such as twisted pair, coaxial cable, etc. * It is less costly as it is built with inexpensive hardware such as hubs, network adapters, and ethernet cables. * The data is transferred at an extremely faster rate in Local Area Network. * Local Area Network provides higher security.* * *

Computer Networks and its types


Learn: What is Computer Network? In this article, we will also discuss aboutthe various types of computer Networks? Submitted by Abhishek Jain, on August 05, 2017Computer Network is a system of interconnected computers that enable thecomputers to communicate with each other and share their resources, data andapplications. The physical location of each computer is tailored to personaland organizational needs. A network may include only personal computers or amix of PCs, minis and mainframes spanning a particular geographical area.Computer networks that are commonly used today may be classified as follows: 1. Based on geographical area: 1. Local Area Networks (LANs) 2. Wide Area Networks(WANs) 3. Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) 4. Personal Area Network (PAN) 2. Based on how computer nodes are used: 1. Client Server Networks (CSNs) 2. Peer-to-Peer Networks (PPNs) 3. Value-added Networks (VANs)

Local Are Network (LAN) Uses


The history of video games reserves a very special space for the LAN networksince it was thanks to this possibility of connecting the equipment thatopened the doors to a new way of experiencing fun.At first, it broke with the limit of players who could compete or collaboratein the same game, which at the time was linked to the capabilities of eachconsole or computer and the creativity of the developers; but over time itserved as an experimental phase for the network of networks, the Internet.Although the LAN network may seem reserved to the business world, many playersstill enjoy their possibilities to have fun with friends or even to compete inthe most important tournaments in the world, where the instability of theInternet would be fatal.As in other aspects of computer science and electronics, experts have manyfactors in mind when assembling, optimizing and maintaining their localnetworks, from the brands and models of the components to the most remotedetails of the software configuration, to make sure you do not waste a singlefraction of a second.Also Read: Top 5 Antivirus Software for Windows 7, 8, 10 in 2019Computer Network Categories

How Computer Networks Work – Devices


This installment of our series on How Computer Networks Work examines thehardware devices that connect to a network and communicate with each other.

Computer Networks Tanenbaum Network Layer Ppt Slides Free Download For


WindowsAfter reviewing, they will be published under your name. So, what are youwaiting for. Submit your notes and share them with the world.Subjects.INTRODUCTION TO IT.JAVA. DATA STRUCTURES. COMPUTER GRAPHICS. COMPUTER NETWORKS.OPERATING SYSTEM. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. DIGITAL CIRCUITS & LOGICDESIGNS. MICROPROCESSOR. COMPUTER SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE. MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONSYSTEM.WEB DEVELOPMENT..PowerPoint Lecture Slides for Computer Networks.Computer network ppt.1.COMPUTER NETWORK & ITS BUSINESS APPLICATIONS.Computernetwork A computer network is a system of interconnected computers andperipheral devices. For example, it may connect computers, printers, scannersand cameras.Communications Communications is about the transfer of informationfrom a sender, across a distance, to a receiver. Communication is an act oftransmitting messages.Computer network communication We transmit informationor data by using two types of signals, namely analog and digital. Computerscommunicate with digital signals. The older forms of communicationstechnology, such as telephones and radios, use analog signals.TYPES OFNETWORKS LOCAL AREA NETWORK METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK WIDE AREA NETWORK.LOCALAREA NETWORK (LAN) Smallest network compared to the other two networks. Thesimplest form of LAN is to connect two computers together.LAN is operated within a limited physical area, such as at home, school, asingle building or several buildings. A network which consists of less than500 interconnected devices across several buildings, is still recognised as aLAN.METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN) ‘ Metropolitan’ – describes importantcities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, bangaluru, Chennai etc.Companies that have several branches within the Mumbai city such as banks, usea MAN. Can be a collection of several LANs within the same city. MAN can bedefined as a group of computers and network devices connected together withina large physical area.WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN) The largest network of allnetwork types. Internet is the largest WAN in the world. WAN generally coverslarge distances such as states, countries or continents. Eg: Local banks havealways maintained their business online by connecting all computers of theirbranches in the countries. International banks also use WAN to connect theircomputers all over the world.

Computer Networks Tanenbaum Network Layer Ppt Slides Free Download Software


WAN is a group of MANs or LANs or the mixture of both networks.Comparison ofLAN, MAN, WAN.NETWORK ARCHITECTURE.Network architecture Overall design of acomputer network that describes how a computer network is configured and whatstrategies are being used. Mainly focuses on the functions of the networks.Also known as network model or network design.Network architectureCLIENT/SERVER NETWORK A client/server network is a network in which the sharedfiles and applications are stored in the server but network users (clients)can still store files on their individual PCs. A server is a computer thatshares information and resources with other computers on a network. A clientis a computer which requests services or files from a server computer.Networkarchitecture Peer-to-peer or P2P It is a network with all the nodes acting asboth servers and clients. A PC can access files located on another PC and canalso provide files to other PCs. All computers in the peer-to-peer network hasequal responsibilities and capabilities to use the resources available on thenetwork.With peer-to-peer network, no server is needed; each computer in the networkis called a peer.Differences.NETWORK TOPOLOGY.Bus Topology DESCRIPTION OF BUSTOPOLOGY Very common in LAN. Must have a common backbone (the central cable)to connect all devices. All nodes share the backbone to communicate with eachother on the network. Sometimes, a bus network has more than one server.Sometimes, a server is not needed on the network. A bus topology consists of asingle central cable to which all computers and other devices connect. A bustopology is also known as a bus network.Ring Topology DESCRIPTION OF RINGTOPOLOGY Can be found in LAN. Each node directly connect to two neighbouringnodes. A server may exist in a ring network, but it will not connect to allthe nodes in the network.The server, like other nodes, will only communicate to its two neighbouringnodes A ring topology consists of all computers and other devices that areconnected in a loop. Ring topology is also known as a ring network.StarTopology DESCRIPTION OF STAR TOPOLOGY A star network is found in a Local AreaNetwork setting. A star network must have a host which acts as the centre. Thehost can be a server, hub or router.In a star network, every node will not connect to the neighbouring nodes.Every node must connect to the host in order to communicate. The host willcontrol the flow of communication in the network. A star topology consists ofa central host which acts as the centre, and all nodes connect to the host. Astar topology is also known as star network.Tree Topology Tree topology is thecombination of the bus and the star topology. The tree like structure allowsyou to have many servers on the network and you can branch out the network onmany ways. Also known as hierarchical network.DESCRIPTION OF TREE TOPOLOGY Nodes of some devices are linked to a centrallylocated hub which is called the active hub. The active hub has a hardwaredevice called the repeater.This strengthens the transmission and increase the travelling distance of asignal. The secondary hub can isolate communications between differentcomputers.Mess Topology Mesh Network is a network where all the nodes areconnected to each other and is a complete network. In a Mesh Network everynode is connected to other nodes on the network through hops. It is called theself healing technology where it receives data one way or the other. Data isautomatically configured to reach the destination by taking the shortestroute. The reliability factor is high in any kind of Mesh Network.The Mesh Network is based on a very sensible concept and has lesser chances ofa network breakdown. DESCRIPTION OF MESS TOPOLOGY.Differences limited limitedmany Number of nodes when extending network average difficult easy Ease ofadding or removing nodes depends on the host.It is easier to repair the problematic host. However, if the nodes fail, theneach node has to be searched depends on backbone. If there is a backbone,troubleshooting is difficult. If there is no backbone, the focus is on the twonodes not communicating difficult.Need to search for the problematic node one by one Ease of troubleshootingnetwork can still run network will fail network can still run Node failurenetwork will fail network will fail network can still run Host failure no yesIt has no connection between the nodes. Connection between nodes yes dependson network needs depends on network needs Host existence there is a centralhost and all nodes connect to it all computers and other devices are connectedin a circle there is a single central cable (backbone) and all computers andother devices connect to it Structure Star Topology Ring Topology BusTopology.APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER NETWORK File sharing. Printer sharing.Communication and collaboration. Remote access. Data protection.Centralized Support and Administration.REFERENCES Basic Computer Applicationby: Vishal khasgiwala & Sumitra Jain Foundation of Information Technologywww.slideshare.com www.scribd.com www.google.com.Presented by: Shivangi GourSantosh Delwar Sachin Shendre Under the guidance of: MR. Niranjan ShrivastavaSir.Appropriate for courses titled Computer Networking or Introduction toNetworking at both the undergraduate and graduate level in Computer Science,Electrical Engineering, CIS, MIS, and Business Departments. In this highlyanticipated revision, Tanenbaum takes a structured approach to explaining hownetworks work from the inside out. He starts with an explanation of thephysical layer of networking, computer hardware and transmission systems; thenworks his way up to network applications.Tanenbaum’s in-depth application coverage includes email; the domain namesystem; the World Wide Web (both client- and server-side); and multimedia(including voice over IP, Internet radio video on demand, video conferencing,and streaming media. Each chapter follows a consistent approach: Tanenbaumpresents key principles, then illustrates them utilizing real-world examplenetworks that run through the entire book-the Internet, and wireless networks,including Wireless LANs, broadband wireless and Bluetooth. This new FourthEdition contains a new chapter devoted exclusively to network security.Thetextbook is supplemented by a Solutions Manual, as well as a Websitecontaining PowerPoint slides, art in various forms, and other tools forinstruction, including a protocol simulator whereby students can develop andtest their own network protocols.From the PublisherThis classic best-sellerhas been completely revised and updated to reflect networking andinternetworking technologies that will be most critical for years tocome.Award-winning educator and researcher Andrew S. Tanenbaum explains howcomputer networks work inside-from the hardware technology up to and includingthe most popular Internet application protocols. Throughout the book arerunning examples of ATM and the Internet.Tanenbaum’s extensive coverage of theInternet, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and wireless networking makesComputer Networks the first book to cover all three of these essentialtechnologies, in addition to explaining the fundamental principles behind allcomputer networking.Book Language: EnglishBook Format: PDFEdition: 5th Edition Computer NetworksBook by Andrew S. Tanenbaum pdf downloadComputer Networks, 5/e is appropriatefor Computer Networking or Introduction to Networking courses at both theundergraduate and graduate level in Computer Science, Electrical Engineering,CIS, MIS, and Business Departments. Computer Networks by Andrew S. TanenbaumPdf Free Download.Tanenbaum takes a structured approach to explaining hownetworks work from the inside out. He starts with an explanation of thephysical layer of networking, computer hardware and transmission systems; thenworks his way up to network applications. Tanenbaum’s in-depth applicationcoverage includes email; the domain name system; the World Wide Web (bothclient- and server-side); and multimedia (including voice over IP, Internetradio video on demand, video conferencing, and streaming media.Each chapter follows a consistent approach: Tanenbaum presents key principles,then illustrates them utilizing real-world example networks that run throughthe entire book—the Internet, and wireless networks, including Wireless LANs,broadband wireless and Bluetooth. The Fifth Edition includes a chapter devotedexclusively to network security. The textbook is supplemented by a SolutionsManual, as well as a Website containing PowerPoint slides, art in variousforms, and other tools for instruction, including a protocol simulator wherebystudents can develop and test their own network protocols.Classification of Computer Based on Number of Users

Different types of Local area network


To learn the types of the local area network, let discuss the quick reviewintroduction to the local area network.As we mentioned earlier, a Local area network is the connection of themultiple networks with a limited distance. Multiple user’s computers areconnected through a router or switch to provide internet access to the limitedrange of the distance. The name itself represents the connection of thedifferent devices only for a certain geographical area. The connection betweenthe home, buildings are coming under the local area network.Multiple computers are connected through a switch by using differenttopological structures. There are different types of components that are usedfor the connection between the local area network. They are : 1. Switch 2. Cable 3. RouterAnd there are different factors of the LAN like 1. Topologies 2. Protocols 3. MediaIn the local area network, we also use the different types the Local networks. 1. Wired Network 2. Wireless Network

Virtual Local Area Network


The Virtual Local Area Network is commonly called the VLAN. Let us discuss theconcept in detail. Simply, VLANs make the logical connection between the twonetworks. In the Virtual local area network, a single switch is maintained toconnect multiple local area networks.This is called the virtual local area network. Let us take an example, Thebelow figure represents the diagram for the virtual LANs.The router consists of different ports. Different ports are connected to thedifferent Virtual local area networks. Suppose if one Network IP address wantsto send a message, only the same Network IP address devices can receive themessage.The IP address with 192.168.1.1/24 can only send the message to the same IPaddress networks. Similarly, the same IP address can send the message to thesame network devices. One IP network doesn’t disturb the other IP networkdevices.If One System wants to communicate with another IP address network the routeris established between the two networks. This router is connected to the portsof the switch, it carries the information to the other network devices.These ports are called the trunk ports and the connection between the tworouters and the trunk port is called the trunk line. These Line will carry theinformation from one IP address network to another IP address network.It is the logical partition that connects the two-layer networks. We create alogical partition for the different ports. Each VLAN has its own IP network.Only with the help of the router, we can transmit or send the data from one IPnetwork to another IP network.eThe main benefits of the virtual local area network * High security is maintained in the VLANs because one VLAN doesn’t disturb the other VLANs. * The Virtual Local area network is cost-effective. We purchase only a single switch instead of multiple networks. * It has a high performance and the maximum utilization of the switch.Data VLAN, Default VLAN, Native VLANs, Management VLAN, Voice VLAN are thedifferent types of Virtual Local area networks.

Local Area Network Topologies


There are different Local area network topologies in the network. They are 1. Bus Topology 2. Ring Topology 3. Star topology 4. Hybrid Topology 5. Mesh TopologyThe Bus Topologies are connected in the form of the line. There is no centraldevice connected to the networks. Every device is attached to the Bus cable.Any information can be shared through the Bus cable. Two different terminatorsare used in the Bus cable.In the Ring Topology, there is no termination end in the ring topology. Eachdevice reads the data and sends the data to the next device, the data packetsare forwards until it reaches to the destination address.In the Star Topology, all the devices are connected to the central device orswitch or hub. It has huge benefits than the bus and ring topology.In the hybrid topology, it is the combination of the star-ring and the starbus topologies. In the star-ring topology, the combination of both thephysical and the logical ring. In the Logical ring topology, the data flowsthrough the central device.

Computer Networks in General


A computer network is an interconnection of nodes either short or longdistances between two or more computers that are linked up to sharingresources. Computers can be linked in many ways such as through cables,telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared beams. There are threebasic types of networks: Local Area Networks (LANs), Metropolitan AreaNetworks (MANs), and Wide Area Networks (WANs). There are many types ofconfigurations of how computer devices are connected to each other callednetwork topologies with some common ones such as Mesh, Star, Ring, Bus, andFully Connected topologies. Most common is the Star network topology where alldevices are connected to central switches.

Local area network (LAN). Computer and Network Examples


A local area network (LAN) is a devices network that connect with each otherin the scope of a home, school, laboratory, or office. Usually, a LAN comprisecomputers and peripheral devices linked to a local domain server. All networkappliances can use a shared printers or disk storage. A local area networkserve for many hundreds of users. Typically, LAN includes many wires andcables that demand a previously designed network diagram. They are used by ITprofessionals to visually document the LANs physical structure andarrangement.The Network Logical Structure Diagram is designed to show the logicalorganization of a network. Shows the basic network components, networkstructure, and determines the interaction of all network devices. The diagramdisplays basic devices and zones: Internet, DMZ, LAN, and group. Clarifieswhat network equipment is connected, describes the major nodes in the network,gives an understanding of the logical structure of the network as well as thetype of interaction within the network.Local Area Network Diagrams visualize the communication schemes of LAN, andthe networks arrangement in houses, offices and buildings. They are used by ITprofessionals to visually document the LANs physical structure andarrangement.

Types of computer networks


There are different types of computer networks. Computer networks can becategorised by their size or their purpose. In this section, we will discussdifferent types of computer networks characterised by size. 1. Personal Area Network (PAN) * PAN is a network organised around an individual. An example of PAN is a desktop computer. A desktop computer has a monitor, mouse and keyboard connected to it. Another example of PAN is the network made between the computer and smartphone when doing syncing. 2. Local Area Network (LAN) 3. Metropolitan Area Network(MAN) * A metropolitan area network covers an entire city, campus or small region. Put differently, MANs link up a bunch of LANS. An example of MAN is a network that links up UCT upper, middle, lower and med school campuses. 4. Wide Area Network (WAN)FIGURE 1.3: DSL INTERNET ACCESS > **Cable**: Unlike DSL, cable Internet uses existing home television cables. > Like DSL, computers need cable modems to connect to television cables. The > cable modem converts digital data to analogue signals. On the ISP end, a > cable modem termination system (CMTS) converts the analogue signal back to > digital. One feature that makes cable Internet different from DSL is that > all homes connected to the same television cable share the same broadcast > medium. > **Fibre**: This type of network access provides a high-speed fibre cable > from the ISP directly to the home. A fibre cable uses glass (or plastic) to > transmit data as a lightwave. A fibre cable can reach transmission rates of > up to 43 terabits per second.

Computer Networks


Q1. Define a Computer network?A computer network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers anddevices to exchange information or share resources.Q2. Explain different components of a computer Network.1. Host /Node / WorkstationHost or node or workstation refers to the computers that are attached to anetwork.2. ServerComputer that facilities sharing of data ,software ,and hardware resources(e.g. printers, modems etc.) on a network is called server.3. ClientA client computer is a computer that can request for some services from aserver.4. NIU (Network Interface Unit)NIU is also known as NIC(Network Interface Card) or LAN Card. It is a devicethat works as an intermediator between computer and the network.LAN Card can be wired as well as wireless. 5. Hub/switchHub/ Switch is a device used to interconnect computers on a network.6. Communication channelCommunication channel is way/method to provide communication between computersand devices on a network. .Communication channel is of two types: a. Wired Communication channels Wired communication channels include cables to interconnect computers on anetwork. There are basically three types of wired communication channels:i. Twisted pair cableii. Coaxial cableiii. Optical fiber cable.b. Wireless Communication channelWireless communication channels include wireless methods to interconnectcomputers on a network. Various types of wireless communication channels are:i. Radio wavesii. Satelliteiii. Microwaveiv. Infrared wavesv. Laser7. SoftwareCommunication is not possible on a network without software components.Different software components include network protocols ,network operatingsystem etc.8. Network ServicesThey refef to the applications that provide different functionalities over anetwork. They include DNS(Domain Name System), file sharing ,VoIP(voice overIP) etc. Q3. What are advantages of a Computer Network1. Resource sharing : We can share hardware devices, softwares as well asdata on a network. 2. Communication Medium : Network can provide communication between differentcomputers attached to a network.3. Reduced Cost : Sharing of resources helps in reducing hardware andsoftware cost4. Centralized Control: We can centrally control the computers attached to anetwork.5. Central storage of data: We can save data of entire network on singlecomputer. It helps in removing duplication of data as well as maintainingintegrity of data.Q4. What is ARPANET?ARPANET stands for Advanced Research Project Agency Network. It was the firstnetwork developed by DOD (Department of Defence) America).Q5. Explain different types of computer Networks ? LAN| MAN| WAN| PAN —|—|—|— 1. It stands for Local Area Network| 1. It stands for Metropolitan AreaNetwork| 1. It stands for Wide Area Network| 1. It stands for Personal AreaNetwork 2. It is a network within a small area such as building.| 2. It is a networkwithin a city.| 2. It is a network across cities, countries and continents.|2. It is a network within a very small area upto 10 meters. 3. Twisted pair cable is preferably used for communication.| 3. Coaxialcable is preferably used for communication..| 3. Optical fiber or satelliteare used for communication| 3. Communication is made using bluetooth,infrared or wireless devices. 4. Example: Computer Lab| 4. Example: Cable TV Network| 4. Example: Mobilephone network| 4. Example: Wireless headphone, wireless printer. Q6. What is Communication channel?Communication channel is way/method to provide communication between computersand devices on a network.Q7. What are types of Communication channel?

5. What do you mean by computer networks? Explain types of computer


networks.BBA notes==>> Computer NetworkComputer network is a group of computers or devices that are connectedtogether by communication link. Computers are in network only when they areautonomous computers. Computers are in network only when they are able toexchange information. A large number of users belonging to same area or sameorganization but spread over at different places can communicate and shareuseful files, software and information at right times via network ofcomputers.Types of Computer NetworkComputer network can be categorized into various types. Some of the importantones are discussed briefly:According to Architecture:a. Peer to Peer Network: In peer to peer network architecture, there is notany dedicated client or server. Computers can take both as client and serverrole. There is not any centralized authority control over share resources. Allcomputers have equal access and responsibility in peer to peer network. Thisnetwork is suitable for equal access and lower number of computers.b. Client server network: There is a dedicated computer to act as server. Theserver has the centralized control over the network resources. The servercontrols the services, access to resources by server configuration to othercomputers (client) in the network. Usually suitable for larger number of userwith security and resource sharing issues.According to size (geographical):i. Local Area Network: * Network in same premises, confined to single building or group of buildings generally belonging to same organization. * Network in which LAN protocols are used or devices are used in LAN. * Communication Infrastructure: * Twisted pair cables (Computer below 100). * Co-axial Cables (>100). * Optical Fibers (>1000). * Data rates much higher than those of WANs and MANs.ii. Metropolitan Area Networks: * Within a metropolitan city. * Middle ground between LAN and WAN. * Private or public network. * High speed data rate than WAN but less than LAN. * Communication Infrastructure: * CATV (community Antena Television Cable). * Cables (Twisted, Coaxial). * Optical Fibers * Radio Links.iii. Wide Area Networks: * Span a large geographical area (Inter City, Inter Country, and Inter Continental). * Require the crossing of public right of ways. * Rely at least in part of circuits provided by a common carrier. * WAN consists of a number of interconnected switching nodes. * Data rates slow as compared to other. * Communication Infrastructure: * Terrestrial Data Network (Cables, Fiber Optics, Radio links etc.) * Satellite Base Data Network (Geostationary Satellites).

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