LAN or Local Area Network Definition
What is a computer network?
“A computer network is a group of two or more computers linked together forexchanging information, data, or resources.”A simple computer network can be established from two computers while acomplex computer network can be established from thousands or millions ofcomputers.
Types of Computer Networks
According to the size, distance, and structure, a computer network can bemainly classified into four types:•PAN (Personal Area Network)•LAN (Local Area Network)•MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)•WAN (Wide Area Network)Apart from the mentioned networks, there are some other networks that we havealso explained below.Let’s understand all of these networks in details:
LAN or Local Area Network Definition
Typically, in a local area network, a group of host computers share a serverwithin a small geographical area. The nodes can be connected over a cable(Ethernet) or using wireless technology (Wi-Fi). They will be sharingresources as such as storage space on the server or network printer.Multiple local networks may function alone, disconnected from any othernetwork. However, some LANs may form a connection to other LANs. For example,if an organisation has offices spread over different countries in the world,each office location can have a local area network.To facilitate communication between any two offices, LANs of each office wouldbe connected and can communicate with the other offices. Some local areanetworks also connect to a wide area network (WAN) such as the internet.
Type of local area networks
Designing a local area network depends on a lot of factor such as the size ofthe organisation, hardware used, the arrangement of devices, etc. Thefollowing characteristics differ one LAN from another:
2. Data networks
Data networks came about as a result of computer applications that had beenwritten for businesses. . However, at the time when these applications werewritten, businesses owned computers that were standalone devices and each oneoperated on its own, independent from any other computers. Therefore, itbecame apparent that this was not an efficient or cost effective manner inwhich to operate businesses.They needed a solution that would successfully address the following threequestions:1. how to avoid duplication of equipment and resources2. how to to communicate efficiently3. how to set up and manage a networkBusinesses recognized how much money they could save and how much productivitythey could gain by using networking technology. They started adding networksand expanding existing networks almost as rapidly as new network technologiesand products were introduced. As a result, the early 1980s saw a tremendousexpansion in networking and however, the early development of networks waschaotic in many ways.By the mid-1980s, growing pains were felt. Many of the network technologiesthat had emerged had been created with a variety of different hardware andsoftware implementations. Consequently, many of the new network technologieswere incompatible with each other. It became increasingly difficult fornetworks that used different specifications to communicate with each other.One early solution to these problems was the creation of local area networks(LANs). Because they could connect all of the workstations, peripherals,terminals, and other devices in a single building, LANs made it possible forbusinesses using computer technology to efficiently share such things as filesand printers.As the use of computers in businesses grew, it soon became obvious that evenLANs were not sufficient. In a LAN system, each department or company is akind of electronic island.What was needed was a way for information to move efficiently and quickly, notonly within a company, but from one business to another. The solution, then,was the creation of the metropolitan area networks (MANs) and wide areanetworks (WANs). Because WANs could connect user networks over largegeographic areas, they made it possible for businesses to communicate witheach other across great distances.
4. Local area networks
One early solution to these problems was the creation of local area networks(LANs). Because they could connect all of the workstations, peripherals,terminals, and other devices in a single building, LANs made it possible forbusinesses using computer technology to efficiently share such things as filesand printers.Local area networks (LANs) consist of computers, network interface cards,networking media, network traffic control devices, and peripheral devices.LANs make it possible for businesses that use computer technology to share,efficiently, such items as files and printers, and to make possiblecommunications such as e-mail. They tie together: data, communications,computing, and file servers.LANs are designed to do the following:* operate within a limited geographic area* allow many users to access high-bandwidth media* provide full-time connectivity to local services* connect physically adjacent devicesThere are many online resources for gaining the most recent information onLANs. Take a moment to browse some of these sites.* Communications Week* Data Communications* InfoWorld* Network Magazine* LAN Times* Network Computing
2) Local Area Network (LAN)
A Local Area Network or LAN as it’s commonly known is a network that connectsdevices usually in the same building or local area. This could be computers orother devices that are within an office building, which are connected togetherto share resources.Most people make use of this network type to share files and other business-related documents in an organization. A router is often used when multipleLocal Area Networks need to be connected to each other. A LAN is probably themost commonly used computer network nowadays. A major component of a LANnetwork is a Layer2 Ethernet Switch which provides the actual communicationbetween devices.
Data networks are used as local and wide area networks for everything from
office computer networks to large scale telecommunications networks* * *Data Networking Fundamentals Includes: Networking fundamentals Local area networks See also: Software defined networks Network functions virtualisation SD-WAN* * *Data networks and data networking technology touches every area of modern lifeeither directly or indirectly.Data networks are used for local area networks within offices and businesses;networks are used for home computer systems and normally incorporate Wi-Fi toenable a host of devices to be connected; they are used for telecommunicationsapplications providing connection for landline and mobile telecommunications;. . . and they are used in almost every walk of life.Although the various data networks used for different scenarios are different,there are some fundamentals that are common across the the data networkingindustry. Data is being passed from one point to another, and the basicconcepts are the same whatever the application.Not only are the basic building blocks the same, although the scale may bedifferent, but many of the same issues present themselves in networks largeand small – network security being but one example.As data networking is is so important, the technology is moving forwards allthe time. New techniques are being developed and the hardware is alwaysimproving and aspects like network security and network monitoring are alsomoving forwards apace to ensure that there is a safe and effective environmentwithin the network.
Classes of data network
It is often helpful to gauge the scale of a computer or data network. A * Local area network, LAN: As the name indicates, this type of network extends over a relatively small area. It has been suggested it might be up to 2km wide at its maximum. Often it will be used for a single business where it will not only link the computers together but provide common resources like printers, storage and possibly some other aspects as well as linking to the Internet and having a common firewall. * Metropolitan area network, MAN : The name for the Metropolitan area network has fallen into a little disuse as it is neither a local area network nor a wide area network, and it does not really have a clear cut definition. That said, it has been suggested in some quarters that it might be between 2 and 50km wide. Essentially the terminology is useful to indicate a network that has grownbeyond that of a local area network and requires additional resources andplanning to maintain it. To maintain the speed of connection between thenodes, fibre optic connections will need to be used. These and otherenhancements will be required to maintain performance for the larger size. * Wide area network, WAN: The wide are network terminology is still widely used and it has ben suggested that this type of network is likely to be grater than 50km in diameter. A wide area network will not only have a lot of resources connected to it, but it will also need to have a fast connections and be well planned. The term local area network is probably the most widely used as it is possiblythe best defined. Most companies will have a local area network on a singlesite.
Different types of Local area network
To learn the types of the local area network, let discuss the quick reviewintroduction to the local area network.As we mentioned earlier, a Local area network is the connection of themultiple networks with a limited distance. Multiple user’s computers areconnected through a router or switch to provide internet access to the limitedrange of the distance. The name itself represents the connection of thedifferent devices only for a certain geographical area. The connection betweenthe home, buildings are coming under the local area network.Multiple computers are connected through a switch by using differenttopological structures. There are different types of components that are usedfor the connection between the local area network. They are : 1. Switch 2. Cable 3. RouterAnd there are different factors of the LAN like 1. Topologies 2. Protocols 3. MediaIn the local area network, we also use the different types the Local networks. 1. Wired Network 2. Wireless Network
Wireless Local Area Network
For Wireless Networks, the Ethernet connection is established to provideInternet access to the local area network. All the systems and devices areconnected through a router, these Router is used to give the Internet accessfor the authorized nearer devices.There are many different ways to connect a LAN. The local area networks areEthernet, Token ring, Wi-Fi LANs, etc are used to connect through the localarea network. Local area networks
Local Area Network Topologies
There are different Local area network topologies in the network. They are 1. Bus Topology 2. Ring Topology 3. Star topology 4. Hybrid Topology 5. Mesh TopologyThe Bus Topologies are connected in the form of the line. There is no centraldevice connected to the networks. Every device is attached to the Bus cable.Any information can be shared through the Bus cable. Two different terminatorsare used in the Bus cable.In the Ring Topology, there is no termination end in the ring topology. Eachdevice reads the data and sends the data to the next device, the data packetsare forwards until it reaches to the destination address.In the Star Topology, all the devices are connected to the central device orswitch or hub. It has huge benefits than the bus and ring topology.In the hybrid topology, it is the combination of the star-ring and the starbus topologies. In the star-ring topology, the combination of both thephysical and the logical ring. In the Logical ring topology, the data flowsthrough the central device.