WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
Types Of Wireless Networks
A Wireless Network combines two or more computer without using any wires bymeans of communication. Wireless Networks uses spread-spectrum or depends onOFDM technology.> It enables a user to move within a wide coverage area but still connected to> the network.Wireless networks are classified into different type such as wireless LAN,WAN, MAN, PAN, Hybrid, Ad-Hoc networks.
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)
WLAN is delivering highest data-transfer rate with 802.11 terminologies.Wireless Area Network uses radio signal instead of traditional network cablingand built by a device called AP. WLAN has well-built status in a differentkind of markets and set up to provide wireless connectivity within a limitedexposure area such as a hospital, airport, a university, gas plant, or healthcare providers.WLAN is delivering highest data-transfer rate with 802.11 terminologies.The technology used in WLAN is Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum whichmaintains a single logical channel. The Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum giveschip pattern to make it more efficient and infrared technology.The benefits of local area networks are high range and coverage, integrity,Interoperability with wired and wireless infrastructure, Interference,Simplicity, Ease, Security, Cost, Scalability and safety which makes a greatplatform for the wireless network.
Data networks are used as local and wide area networks for everything from
office computer networks to large scale telecommunications networks* * *Data Networking Fundamentals Includes: Networking fundamentals Local area networks See also: Software defined networks Network functions virtualisation SD-WAN* * *Data networks and data networking technology touches every area of modern lifeeither directly or indirectly.Data networks are used for local area networks within offices and businesses;networks are used for home computer systems and normally incorporate Wi-Fi toenable a host of devices to be connected; they are used for telecommunicationsapplications providing connection for landline and mobile telecommunications;. . . and they are used in almost every walk of life.Although the various data networks used for different scenarios are different,there are some fundamentals that are common across the the data networkingindustry. Data is being passed from one point to another, and the basicconcepts are the same whatever the application.Not only are the basic building blocks the same, although the scale may bedifferent, but many of the same issues present themselves in networks largeand small – network security being but one example.As data networking is is so important, the technology is moving forwards allthe time. New techniques are being developed and the hardware is alwaysimproving and aspects like network security and network monitoring are alsomoving forwards apace to ensure that there is a safe and effective environmentwithin the network.
Network hubs, switches and routers
The very first computer networks were created just by connecting computerstogether. However as data networks and networking technology has grown, it isnot possible to just link computers together. data needs to be routed across avariety of routes between a huge number of different endpoints.To achieve this, network entities called hubs, switches and routers are used..The hubs, switches and routers used in data networks are all different, andalthough the terms are often used (incorrectly) to describe any one of theseentities, they are actually quite different: * Network hub: A network hub is the most basic of the main network elements. The network hub passes on all the data that is received on one port to all the others. Hubs were often used as a common connection point. However the drawback is that because they send all data out to all ports, congestion can arise. Accordingly they are not widely used these days. * Network switch: Network switches are more intelligent than hubs and they are widely used within large networks. Network switches filter and forward data presenting the data to be forwarded onto only the required port. * Network router: Routers are the most intelligent forms of network node used for connecting data. A router has significantly more intelligence than a switch. It forwards data packets between networks, often from one router to the next until it reaches its destination. When a data packet arrives from one network, the router reads the address information to determine the ultimate destination. Using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network. Routers often also contain significant additional capability in terms ofknowing where data packets are to be forwarded and in terms of translation ofaddresses, etc.
Classes of data network
It is often helpful to gauge the scale of a computer or data network. A * Local area network, LAN: As the name indicates, this type of network extends over a relatively small area. It has been suggested it might be up to 2km wide at its maximum. Often it will be used for a single business where it will not only link the computers together but provide common resources like printers, storage and possibly some other aspects as well as linking to the Internet and having a common firewall. * Metropolitan area network, MAN : The name for the Metropolitan area network has fallen into a little disuse as it is neither a local area network nor a wide area network, and it does not really have a clear cut definition. That said, it has been suggested in some quarters that it might be between 2 and 50km wide. Essentially the terminology is useful to indicate a network that has grownbeyond that of a local area network and requires additional resources andplanning to maintain it. To maintain the speed of connection between thenodes, fibre optic connections will need to be used. These and otherenhancements will be required to maintain performance for the larger size. * Wide area network, WAN: The wide are network terminology is still widely used and it has ben suggested that this type of network is likely to be grater than 50km in diameter. A wide area network will not only have a lot of resources connected to it, but it will also need to have a fast connections and be well planned. The term local area network is probably the most widely used as it is possiblythe best defined. Most companies will have a local area network on a singlesite.
Data network developments
As the requirements for large data networks increase with efficiency,reliability and flexibility needing to be always increased. New techniqueshave been introduced to meet the needs. * Software defined networking, SDN : One of the key techniques that is being used to improve the performance of data networks is called software defined networking. Using this technique the network control and forwarding functions are separated and this enables the network to be reconfigured more easily to meet the needs of the moment. If network monitoring is undertaken and the results presented, then reconfiguration can be undertaken with a complete knowledge of the performance of the network. * Network functions virtualization, NFV : Along with many other areas that use processing, it is possible to use a set of processing hardware that is standard across the network and this can be configured to provide the required function. As usage changes, this can be reconfigured to provide a different function if required. In this way the data network can respond to the needs of the minute more easily and effectively.
Large data networks can be very complicated items. Predicting how they willwork, and even knowing when there is an issue can be difficult. Often if anode or other item fails, then the system will automatically route data viaanother route.Whilst this level of automation is good, it is not always easy to detect whenthere is an issue, although latency (the time for the data to travel) willincrease and there are likely to be data bottlenecks.To overcome these issues, large data network normally have sophisticatednetwork monitors. These network monitors are normally embedded in the system.As a result these network monitors are able to look at the operation of thenetwork and detect issues and often detect ways in which the network could bereconfigured to optimise its operation.For large data networks, the presence of network monitors is absolutelyessential if the reliable operation of the network is to be ensured.
As the use of computer technology enters more areas of life and its importanceincreases, so too do the risks. With hackers becoming ever more resourceful,the topic of network security is of great concern.There are several aspects to network security from the telecommunicationsnetwork security to various aspects of computer network security.Computer network security is of particular interest to anyone running any formof computer network, be it for a home computer system, or for a small or largeenterprise. Whether we like it or not, computer networks affect all walks of our lives,from the telecommunications networks we use, to home computer networks, toother large data networks used by companies when we need to buy something.data networks are in all walks of life and although they are used for slightlydifferent purposes, many of the fundamentals are exactly the same.Wireless & Wired Connectivity Topics: Mobile Communications basics 2G GSM 3G UMTS 4G LTE 5G WiFi IEEE 802.15.4 DECTcordless phones NFC- Near Field Communication Networking fundamentals What isthe Cloud Ethernet Serial data USB SigFox LoRa VoIP SDN NFV SD-WAN Return to Wireless & Wired ConnectivityAdvantages and disadvantages of wide area network (WAN)
Computer Security Specialist
Many basic duties of a computer security specialist might overlap with thoseof an information assurance specialist. Security specialists in someorganizations plan, coordinate, and implement the organization’s informationsecurity. Their responsibilities could include educating users on computersecurity, installing security software, monitoring the network for securitybreaches, and responding to hacker attacks. Security specialists might also beasked to gather data and evidence for prosecuting a crime. They might work forsmaller companies. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS),computer security specialists earned a median salary of $88,890 in 2014.
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Computer and information systems managers are more directly involved inoverseeing others who work in the system such as network analysts and computerprogrammers. This means they must determine the personnel and equipment needsof the organization. They are usually in charge of coordinating suchactivities as upgrading the hardware and software, developing computernetworks, and programming the system. Computer and information systemsmanagers earned a median annual salary of $127,640 in 2014 according tostatistics from the BLS.
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Computer and information systems managers manage the information system, whichincludes applications, networks, personal computers and hardware and software.This typically involves the planning, organizing and daily support of thesystem under the supervision of the chief information officer. They mightoversee user services such as an organization’s help desk. Computer andinformation systems managers made a median annual salary of $127,640 in 2014according to the BLS.
Local Area Network and Wide Area Network Managers
Local area network and wide area network managers can be in charge ofeverything from setting up the network through managing and updating it. Theconfiguration of the hardware and software used to create the connectionsfalls under this job’s function. The larger the network, the more securityissues can become a problem. As is true with most of these positions, the jobrequires extensive knowledge of system setups and the hardware used to operateit. The managers must know the network inside and out.