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swIPe IP Security Protocol swIPe

What is CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)?

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, or CHAP, is an encryptedauthentication scheme in which the unencrypted password is not transmittedover the network. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is one ofseveral authentication schemes used by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), aserial transmission protocol for wide area network (WAN) connections. Otherauthentication schemes supported by PPP include Password AuthenticationProtocol (PAP), Shiva Password Authentication Protocol (SPAP), and MicrosoftChallenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP). PAP is a widely implemented authentication protocol, but CHAP is more securethan PAP because CHAP encrypts the transmitted password, while PAP does not.SPAP and MS-CHAP are vendor-specific implementations.

What is MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)?

MS-CHAP is an encrypted authentication scheme used in wide area network (WAN)communication. Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP)is supported by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) used by the Remote AccessService (RAS) of Microsoft Windows NT, and the Point-to-Point TunnelingProtocol (PPTP) used by the Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) ofWindows NT Service Pack 4 and later and by Windows 2000 and Windows 98.

An Overview of Secure Communication Protocols

There are hundreds of communication protocols that define rules for differentmachines exchanging information. These rules can be the syntax, semantics anderror detection of the data packets. They ensure the successful transmissionof data between multiple entities (computers/servers/networks). The partiesinvolved in the communication process have to agree with each other so thatthe message can pass through from one entity to another. The differenthardware, software, and other devices used in this communication chain make ita sophisticated mission to coordinate issues ranging from interoperability andmulti-vendor support to logical addressing. The open systems interconnection(OSI) model was initially developed to break down the problems and assign theduties to seven different layers in network communication (physical, datalink,network, transport, session, presentation, and application). The OSI modelpaved the way to the creation of the four-layered transmission controlprotocol and Internet protocol (TCP/IP) model (network access, Internet,transport, and application). The TCP/IP model is the foundation of practicaland workable protocols for computers and networks to interact.The TCP/IP model is the industry standard today with over 30 years of history.All operation systems support and operate with TCP/IP protocols nowadays. TheTCP/IP protocol combination is therefore known as “the language of theInternet.” As the user population of the Internet grows, the need for securecommunication rises greatly. Government institutions and companiesincreasingly adopt online communication systems to facilitate activities suchas payment, identification, and application, to name a few. Communicationprotocols between two computers are thus indispensable to safeguard computernetworks for these digital activities. The following protocols are several keyexamples developed for secure communication on the transport layer of both theOSI and the TCP/IP models:

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Nowadays, computer servers and networks are required to handle more and morecomplex online activities. The data during the transmission pathway can riskcyberattacks such as wiretapping and spoofing. If the user sends sensitiveinformation such as a credit card number and the connection between the senderand receiver is intercepted, the attacker can seize this information and useit. One effective method to protect this data delivery process is encryption.SSL is a popular encryption solution that provides session and live connectionsecurity between two or more parties. It has three objectives: privacyprotection, identity authentication, and reliability. In order to achievethem, SSL adopts a hybrid encryption methodology (symmetric and asymmetric) tosecure the communication between two computers based on the RSA, Diffie-Hellman, or Fortezza/DMS cryptography approach. Firstly, the web browserdelivers a request for identification to the web server using asymmetricencryption. The web server replies with a certified authority (CA) digitalcertificate. In this process, both sides exchange several messages tonegotiate the exchange of keys. Once the web browser recognizes the identityof the web server via the CA, they will establish a symmetric encryptedconnection to exchange information. Secure HTTP or HTTPS is an applicationexample of SSL. The address bar of the web browser provides hints, such as alock icon or green bar, to inform the users about the security connectionstatus. A similar protocol to SSL is the simple key-management for internetprotocol (SKIP). The difference between SKIP and SSL is that the former usesan established static secret table to calculate the keys to directly set upthe subsequent secure connection while the latter requires prior communicationto generate the key. SKIP was developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995.

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

TLS always goes hand in hand with SSL in the form of SSL/TLS. In fact, TLS isthe successor of SSL. The framework of TLS remains substantially the same asSSL, but with several key differences. First, TLS operates on the applicationlayer of the OSI model and the transport layer of TCP/IP model. Second, thefinal version of SSL stops at SSL v.3.0 and the following upgrade is renamedTLS v.1.0. It is important to bear these two issues in mind when it comes todebug and troubleshoot encryption problems related to TLS. In addition, TLSadopts the keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) encryption standardto generate the key and authenticate messages. Fortezza encryption used in SSLis no longer supported in TLS. In addition, there are more alert messages inTLS than SSL. TLS has 23 alert descriptions while SSL has 12. Most important,TLS introduces the TLS handshake protocol, which permits the client and serverto authenticate each other before exchanging any data.

swIPe IP Security Protocol (swIPe)

The protocol of swIPe is an experimental internet protocol security (IPsec)suggested in 1993. It is developed to provide end-to-end data communication.It encapsulates each IP datagram in the communication with a swIPe packetprotocol 53 to enhance the cryptography strength. The objectives of swIPe wereto ensure authentication, integrity, and confidentiality of IP datagrams onthe network layer. It was not developed to manage keys and other policies thatoccur in the communication process. Another protocol with the same datagramencryption purpose is the encapsulating security payload (ESP).

Secure Remote Procedure Call (S-RPC)

S-RPC is a secure client-server protocol operating on the application layer ofthe OSI and TCP/IP models. Many computer applications perform interactively onthe basis of request and response between the client and server on thenetwork. For example, the program on the client side requests a service, data,and other resources from the program on the server side. Then the serveranswers the request of the client and a synchronous interaction is establishedfor both parties. This interactive operation is the remote procedure call(RPC). The client-server operation suspends when the runtime is over. In a RPCimplementation scenario, instead of encrypting the data traffic, effectivelyauthenticating the client is more important. Hence, the principle of S-RPC isto produce public and private keys to clients and servers for authentication.The key generation is based on Diffie-Hellman.

Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)

SET is a set of protocols specifically developed to secure online financialtransaction. It primarily protects credit card transactions among purchasers,merchants, and banks. The early supporters of SET were financial and webbrowser service providers such as Mastercard, Visa, Microsoft, and Netscape.SET provides a digital certificate as a sort of digital wallet for each partyto ensure the transaction confidentiality. Each certificate has a uniquepublic key for their identity verification. All the data communicated via SETamong the three parties are encrypted so none of them can access the sensitiveinformation. SET is highly popular for e-commerce today. The fact that Set isendorsed by Mastercard and Visa further augments its credibility.There are hundreds of protocols working on various levels of the OSI andTCP/IP network model. SSL, TLS, SET, SKIP, swipe, and S-RPC are some of thekey protocols that can facilitate the understanding of other communicationprotocols.

An Overview of Authentication Protocols

The mechanism of secure communication protocols has a substantial emphasis onthe process of authentication. It is important not to mix up authenticationwith authorization. The former identifies the individual or organization viausername, password, and other devices. The later refers to the access right ofthe identified individual. Authentication is a decisive step above all else.Terabytes of accurate and credible information about individuals and financialtransactions circulate on the Internet every second these days. Identity theftand forging authentication information in cyberspace can generate considerableimpact to the victim. Thus, authentication protocols play the role of guardianin denying access to malicious actors. The following three examples are point-to-point (PPP) authentication protocols:

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)

PAP is an old and static secure communication protocol using plain-textpasswords without encryption. It establishes the client/server connection atthe beginning of communication. The security level of PAP is the lowestcompared to the other two authentication protocols because it uses plain-textpasswords. PAP is also incapable of changing the password duringauthentication once it expires. It is used in situations and systems whereencrypted passwords are now supported; for example, some non-Windows operationsystems and serial line internet protocol (SLIP) servers. It is vulnerableagainst the most elementary attacks like man-in-the-middle (MiM).

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)

CHAP is a superior authentication protocol vis-à-vis PAP. It adopts a three-way handshake verification approach to implement encrypted authentication.Moreover, the authentication is encrypted by the MD5 hashing industrystandard. The authenticating side begins the process by delivering a challengestring to the client side. The latter then generates a one-way hash value onthe challenge. The authentication is acknowledged accordingly by theauthenticating side. CHAP repeats again the same authentication stepsregularly with a different challenge value. In this way, this mechanism cansuccessfully protect the authentication process against playback attacks.

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)

EAP can be applied beyond PPP to wireless networks. The user requests aconnection through an access point on a wireless network. The identity of theuser is examined and transmitted to the authentication server. Upon receivingthe information, the authentication server asks the access point to provideproof of the user’s identity. As long as the access point can respond to theauthentication server with the proof, the user will be connected to thenetwork. EAP is an effective client-server authentication framework.Therefore, there are many versions of EAP, depending on the authenticationmethod. Some examples of EAP method are EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS and EAP-TTLS. It alsosupports multiple authentication mechanisms ranging from token cards,smartcards, and one-time passwords to public key authentication. It permitsthird-party vendors to create custom authentication schemes. Some concreteexamples are retina scans, voice recognition, and fingerprint identification.The challenges of authentication require better and more exhaustive encryptionapproaches.

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iPhone Computer Electronics Repair

Best Electronics Repair Near You

All of our repairs and replacement parts we use come paired with a solid 90day warranty to ensure you don’t have to worry about a thing from ourservices. So that in the unlikely event anything should go wrong with arecently completed repair from us, you’ll have our dedicated team of supportto help remedy that. You can count on our repairs and our expert techniciansfor all your repair needs. Walk ins are always welcomed within business hoursand we encourage our customers to come at their convenience without the needfor time wasting appointments. Our team is always ready to help with all yourrepair needs!


Our talented techs are iPhone repair experts, and love nothing better thanreplacing cracked screens, sorting out liquid damage, and so much more. Plus,with millions of repairs under their belts there’s really no-one better to doelectronics repairs near you. We want you to be as impressed with ourtechnicians as we are, which is why they’ve received extensive training sothey can be the best of the best. They get results fast too. Our speedy sameday service means you’ll be back doing what you love in no time, and in factmany of our repair jobs take less than two hours! So, if you’re in a bit of ahurry, don’t stress. The repair won’t take up much of your time, and you’ll beheading home with a device that’s as good as new.

iPhone Repair, Samsung Repair and Computer Repair

We like to treat our customers. So when you walk in, we’ll give you a freediagnostic exam for your device, as well as a customized work plan so you knowexactly what the issue is and how we intend to repair it. It’s totally up toyou whether you want to proceed; there’s absolutely no pressure at all. But assoon as you give us the green light, we’ll get right on it. Our team has donemillions of phone repairs, so you know you’re in safe hands. These guys areproven pros at tackling liquid damage, iPhone screen repair, and much more.Whatever you need fixed, they’ve probably seen it (and fixed) it before. Itwon’t cost the earth, either! We truly believe you should have the bestservice at the lowest possible price, which is why you’ll love our price-matchpromise, where we’ll beat a cheaper local quote, if you can find one, by $5.

Our Repair Services:

– Screen repair – Battery replacement – Glass screen repair – Spyware & virus removal – Connectivity troubleshooting – Dead battery replacement – Liquid damage – Boot-up issues – Hard drive repair – Memory or data recovery

iPhone, Computer & Electronics Repair

We offer a wide variety of repair services, ranging from electronics of allsorts. Our versatile technicians can repair cell phones, computers, laptops,tablets, and gaming consoles alike. We love tinkering with tech and findingthe fixes to an electronic problem. We are dedicated to providing you with thefastest services we can, and you’ll always get the best work we can provide.Not sure what’s wrong with a particular device? Don’t worry, our team inSpringfield has you covered with a 100% free diagnostic examination when youbring your device to us. This serves to identify the root of the problem andoffer up solutions you may want to consider when choosing your repairs. Thetest is completely free of obligation or charge so feel free to shop aroundafter you know what you need.We’re confident you’ll choose us because webelieve in what we have to offer at uBreakiFix. You have nothing to lose whenyou get your diagnostic with us and much to gain!

iPhone, Computer, & Electronics Repair

We fix more than just smartphones here in uBreakiFix. Our versatiletechnicians can work on a large range of devices including cell phones,computers, tablets, laptops, gaming consoles, and more. Our experts delight inrepairing different types of technology and will always give their best inevery electronic they work on. You can rely on their precise craftsmanship andthe integrity of each repair they complete. For lasting repairs that ensureyour devices will perform at their highest capacity, bring it to uBreakiFix.

iPhone, Computer & Electronics Repair

With a growing number of technological devices each year, you need a placewith experts who are up to date with the latest gear and can help you with allyour electronic repair needs. Here in Scarsdale our technicians specialize insmartphone repairs on devices like the iPhone, Samsung Galaxy, and GooglePixel. However their mastery over repairs extends across a wide range ofelectronic devices such as computers, laptops, cellphones, tablets, and evengaming consoles. Featuring a wide array of repair services across a multitudeof electronic gear ensures you don’t have to find a separate shop for each ofyour devices. We are a one-stop-shop for all your repair needs and provide thesame reliable work across any device you bring in for repairs.

iPhone, Computer, & Electronics Repair

Our team of expert technicians is highly versatile and can service a widerange of electronics. From cellphones, computers, laptops, tablets, gamingconsoles, and more. You won’t have to look elsewhere for each device you own,at uBreakiFix in Suffolk our techs have you covered.Not sure what is wrong with any particular device? No problem, we offer ourcommunity a 100% free diagnostic exam to identify the issue and recommend thebest repair options. The test is free of obligation or charge, so you can takeyour repairs elsewhere if you choose to. We are confident we offer the bestservices and the most reliable repairs in all of Suffolk. Just come see foryourself what makes uBreakiFix a cut above other repair shops.

iPhone, Computer & Electronics Repair

We wanted to create a home for all damaged electronics that our customers cancount on again and again for all their repair needs. Although our talentedtechnicians specialize in smartphone repairs on devices like the iPhone,Samsung Galaxy, and Google Pixel, that is not all they can repair. Here inVictor New York our uBreakiFix experts can work with cell phones, computers,tablets, laptops, and even gaming consoles. So you can always rely on ourtechnicians whenever you have issues with your electronic devices. uBreakiFixis a ‘one-stop-shop’ for all your repair needs, so you won’t need to findanother place for each of your devices. Not sure what’s wrong with your gear?No problem, bring it to us and we’ll run a complimentary diagnosticexamination to identify the issue. Once you know what is wrong, you’ll alsounderstand the repairs you need and we’ll recommend your best options. Thediagnostic is 100% free so you’ll never be charged and you’ll be at noobligation to get your repairs with us.

Trusted Repair Right in Your Neighborhood

If you’re still searching for a “phone repair near me,” it’s time to stop andget those electronics fixed. uBreakiFix can do better than anyone else, and atthe best rates in the business. With hundreds of locations across the UnitedStates and Canada, our experts are known for exceptional repairs allthroughout North America. We boast millions of successful repairs and loyalcustomers who always choose our technicians for their device repairs. You cancount on us, we are here to serve our community in Victor, NY and we’ll alwaysgo above and beyond to ensure you are happy with our work. Our dedicated teamsalways welcome walk ins within business hours and we encourage customers tocome at their convenience. Bring us your busted gear today and let us show youwhy uBreakiFix is the best place for electronic repairs in Victor!

iPhone, Computer & Electronics Repair

Though we specialize in cell phones, we also have a knack for computers,iPads, gaming consoles and laptops. No electronic is too far gone for ourattention. Bring it in we can perform one of our free diagnostic exams. Afterwe enlighten you about your device’s condition, we will offer you a pricequote on a repair. You’ll get the price and info you need up front, so you candecide what’s best for your device. And if you happen to find a price that’slower than ours, we have a price match guarantee. After we pick ourselves upoff the floor from the shock of actually seeing proof of a price that’s lowerthan ours, we’ll beat that price by $5; because after all, our reputation isat stake here!

iPhone, Computer & Electronics Repair

Although our team is very well known for expert cell phone repairs, that isnot the only thing our talented technicians can fix. Offering a wide varietyof repair services we are able to work on cell phones, computers, laptops,Chromebooks, tablets, and even gaming consoles. No matter what your repairneeds might be, our team of experts has got you covered. You won’t have tohave a different shop for every device, at uBreakiFix we are a one stop shopfor all electronic device repairs.Come get a free diagnostic exam to identify the problems with your gear beforeyou spend a penny on repairs. Our free diagnostic will reveal what went wrongwith the equipment and the best options available to get back to normal. Oneof the many reasons to come to a uBreakiFix near you today!

iPhone, Computer, & Electronics Repair

We believe in short and sweet repairs that swiftly reunite our clients withtheir loved tech. We won’t waste your time by placing you on a waiting list ordelaying on repairs. At uBreakiFix in Kirkman, FL we are happy to provide sameday repairs whenever possible. Our capable team of technicians can evencomplete most basic repairs in just under two hours. Now that’s a speed youcan get excited about. Because you deserve faster repair services and our teambrings you the fastest, quality repairs around. To make the process farsmoother and easier for our customers we also provide you with a freediagnostic examination on all your electronic repairs. So you’ll know exactlywhat’s wrong with your gear and how our team can help fix it. The diagnosticis 100% free of obligation or charges, you’ll have nothing to lose and a lotto gain by bringing your electronics to uBreakiFix for repairs.

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You must have Audit Process Creation auditing enabled to see event ID

Step 2: Find the Domain Controller with the PDC Emulator Role

If you have a single domain controller (shame on you) then you can skip to thenext step…hopefully you have at least two DCs.The DC with the PDC emulator role will record every account lockout with anevent ID of 4740.To find the DC that has the PDCEmulator role run this PowerShell command get-addomain | select PDCEmulator

Method 2: Using the User Unlock GUI Tool to Find the Source of Account

LockoutsI created this tool to make it super easy for any staff member to unlockaccounts, reset passwords and find the source of account lockouts.Just like PowerShell this tool requires the auditing be turned on for AccountManagement. See steps above for enabling these audit logs.1. Open the User Unlock Tool2. Click the Search Button, then click more detailsThat is all there is to it.You will now see a list of times the account was locked out and the sourcecomputer.In addition you can unlock the account and reset the password all from onetool. The tool will display all locked accounts, you can select a singleaccount or multiple accounts to unlock.The user unlock tool is included in my AD Pro Toolkit bundle, this is a bundleof 10 tools to help simplify and automate routine AD tasks.I hope you found this article useful. If you have questions or comments let meknow by posting a comment below.Recommended Tool: SolarWinds Server & Application MonitorThis utility was designed to Monitor Active Directory and other criticalservices like DNS & DHCP. It will quickly spot domain controller issues,prevent replication failures, track failed logon attempts and much more.What I like best about SAM is it’s easy to use dashboard and alertingfeatures. It also has the ability to monitor virtual machines and storage.Download Your Free Trial HereCommand line process auditing

You must have Audit Process Creation auditing enabled to see event ID

4688.To enable the Audit Process Creation policy, edit the following group policy:Policy location: Computer Configuration > Policies > Windows Settings >Security Settings > Advanced Audit Configuration > Detailed TrackingPolicy Name: Audit Process CreationSupported on: Windows 7 and aboveDescription/Help:This security policy setting determines whether the operating system generatesaudit events when a process is created (starts) and the name of the program oruser that created it.These audit events can help you understand how a computer is being used and totrack user activity.Event volume: Low to medium, depending on system usageDefault: Not configured

To ensure that Advanced Audit Policy Configuration settings are not

overwritten 1. Open the Group Policy Management console 2. Right-click Default Domain Policy, and then click Edit. 3. Double-click Computer Configuration, double-click Policies, and then double-click Windows Settings. 4. Double-click Security Settings, double-click Local Policies, and then click Security Options. 5. Double-click Audit: Force audit policy subcategory settings (Windows Vista or later) to override audit policy category settings, and then click Define this policy setting. 6. Click Enabled, and then click OK.

Try This: Explore command line process auditing

1. Enable Audit Process Creation events and ensure the Advance Audit Policy configuration is not overwritten 2. Create a script that will generate some events of interest and execute the script. Observe the events. The script used to generate the event in the lesson looked like this: mkdir c:systemfilestempcommandandcontrolzonefifthward copy$hidden c:systemfilestemphiddencommandandcontrolzonefifthward start C:systemfilestemphiddencommandandcontrolzonefifthwardntuserrights.vbs del c:systemfilestemp*.* /Q 3. Enable the command line process auditing 4. Execute the same script as before and observe the eventsConfiguring Audit Policy in Windows Server 2016In this article, I’m going to show you the way of configuring audit policy onWindows server 2016. As in our previous topics, we have told you how toconfigure lockout policy and as well as configuring password policy on Windowsserver 2016. Configuring audit policy can be applied to Microsoft Windowsserver 2003, Windows server 2008, server 2012 and Windows 10 operating systemwith its previous versions.

What is Audit Policy?

Whenever you configure audit policy in Windows server or any client. Thispolicy will allow or help you to get information about who logged into yourcomputer? When he or she logged in or from where that user logged in. And aswell as give you information about any kinds of event that happen on thatcomputer. By configuring audit policy, you can get all this information. Toget known about these events, go to the event section then take all the info.Now, we’re going to explain the following policies.

1. Audit Account Logon Events

This security setting determines whether the OS audits each time this computervalidates an account’s credentials.Account logon events are generated whenever a computer validates thecredentials of an account for which it is authoritative. Domain members andnon-domain-joined machines are authoritative for their local accounts; domaincontrollers are all authoritative for accounts in the domain. Credentialvalidation may be in support of a local login, or, in the case of an ActiveDirectory domain account on a domain controller, may be in support of a loginto another computer. Credential validation is stateless so there is nocorresponding logoff event for account login events.Audit Account Logon EventsIf this policy setting is defined, the administrator can specify whether toaudit only successes, only failures, both successes and failures or to notaudit these events at all.

2. Audit Account Management

This security setting determines whether to audit each event of accountmanagement on a computer. Examples of account management events include: * A user account or group is created, changed, or deleted. * A user account is renamed, disabled, or enabled. * A password is set or changed.If you define this policy setting, you can specify whether to audit successes,audit failures or not audit the event type at all. Success audits generate anaudit entry when any account management event succeeds. Failure auditsgenerate an audit entry when any account management event fails. To set thisvalue to No auditing, in the Properties dialog box for this policy setting,select the Define these policy settings check box and clear the Success andFailure check boxes.Audit Account Management

4. Audit Logon Events

This security setting determines whether the OS audits each instance of a userattempting to log on to or to log off to this computer. Logoff events aregenerated whenever a logged on user account’s login session is terminated. Ifthis policy setting is defined, the administrator can specify whether to auditonly successes, only failures, both successes and failures, or to not auditthese events at all.Audit Logon Events

6. Audit Policy Change

This security setting determines whether the OS audits each instance ofattempts to change user rights assignment policy, audit policy, accountpolicy, or trust policy. The administrator can specify whether to audit onlysuccesses, only failures, both successes and failures, or to not audit theseevents at all (i.e. neither successes nor failures).If Success auditing is enabled, an audit entry is generated when an attemptedchange to user rights assignment policy, audit policy, or trust policy issuccessful.Audit Policy ChangeIf Failure auditing is enabled, an audit entry is generated when an attemptedchange to user rights assignment policy, audit policy, or trust policy isattempted by an account that is not authorized to make the requested policychange.

8. Audit Process Tracking

This security setting determines whether the OS audits process-related eventssuch as process creation, process termination, handle duplication, andindirect object access. If this policy setting is defined, the administratorcan specify whether to audit only successes, only failures, both successes andfailures, or to not audit these events at all.Audit Process TrackingIf Success auditing is enabled, an audit entry is generated each time the OSperforms one of these process-related activities. If Failure auditing isenabled, an audit entry is generated each time the OS fails to perform one ofthese activities.

9. Audit System Events

This security setting determines whether the OS audits any of the followingevents: * Attempted system time change * Attempted security system startup or shutdown * Attempt to load extensible authentication components * Loss of audited events due to auditing system failure * Security log size exceeding a configurable warning threshold level.If this policy setting is defined, the administrator can specify whether toaudit only successes, only failures, both successes and failures, or to notaudit these events at all (i.e. neither successes nor failures).Audit System EventsIf Success auditing is enabled, an audit entry is generated each time the OSperforms one of these activities successfully. If Failure auditing is enabled,an audit entry is generated each time the OS attempts and fails to perform oneof these activities.

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b Waveform Audio File Format WAV

(b) Waveform Audio File Format (WAV)

The WAV audio file format was developed by Microsoft and IBM back in the year1991. And during that initial time, it used to be called ‘Audio forWindows’. WAV, in a nutshell, is like a container for various audio formats,because of which, it can sometimes contain compressed audio formats. However,that is rarely the case, and most of the times, the files are uncompressed andpresent in the PCM audio format.

(c) Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)

Similar to WAV, which is developed by Microsoft and IBM, and largely intendedfor use on Windows, the AIFF format is an in-house format developed by Applefor its Mac lineup. Much like WAV for Windows, AIFF is a container for Apple,which can hold different kinds of audio formats. However, more than anything,it is a wrapper for the PCM format, specifically for the Mac.Note: Both WAV and AIFF are also compatible with Mac and Windows,respectively.

Audio file formats by file extensions

There are several audio file formats, standards, and file extensions usedtoday. Below is a list of the most common audio file extensions. * .aif – AIF audio file * .cda – CD audio track file * .mid or .midi – MIDI audio file. * .mp3 – MP3 audio file * .mpa – MPEG-2 audio file * .ogg – Ogg Vorbis audio file * .wav – WAV file * .wma – WMA audio file * .wpl – Windows Media Player playlist

Image file formats by file extension

There are many different image types and image file extensions that can beused when creating and saving images on the computer. Below is a list of themost common image file extensions.

Video file formats by file extension

Today, several file types are associated with video files to add differenttypes of compression, compatibility, and DRM to video files. Below is a listof the most commonly found video file extensions.

How to Edit an MP3 File

A website that can quickly trim an MP3 file to make it not only smaller insize but also shorter in length, is Some other editing tools thereinclude a volume, speed, and pitch changer.Audacity is a popular audio editor that has lots of features, so it’s not aseasy to use as the one we just mentioned. However, it’s great if you need toedit out the middle of the MP3 file or do advanced things like add effects andmix multiple audio files.Editing MP3 metadata in batches is possible with tag editing software likeMp3tag.Thanks for letting us know!Tell us why!Other Not enough details Hard to understandGet to Know 10 Common Audio File FormatsWhich is the best audio file format out there and is WAV better than MP3?If you have similar questions in mind and are confused about the differenttypes of audio formats, then this would be a perfect guide for you. In thispost, we learn more about different audio formats and also provide a quickguide to recover deleted music files as well.As you know, there could be different kinds of music formats to save soundfiles. For instance, some of them follow a lossy compression while othersfollow a lossless compression technique. Though, these audio file formatsserve their distinctive function that would depend on different situations.

MP3 File Format

MP3 is certainly the most popular audio format that is accepted by everyleading platform and device. It stands for MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 and was firstintroduced by the Moving Picture Experts Group in 1993. The compressiontechnique gets rid of all the sound that is not audible to human ears or noiseand then focus on the actual data. This can reduce the size of the audio fileby 75 to 90% as compared to the original size. It is known as a universalmusic extension as the open format is used in almost every media-supportingdevice.

Audio File Types and Formats

— .aif | Audio Interchange File Format .iff | Interchange File Format .m3u | Media Playlist File .m4a | MPEG-4 Audio File .mid | MIDI File .mp3 | MP3 Audio File .mpa | MPEG-2 Audio File .ra | Real Audio File .wav | WAVE Audio File .wma | Windows Media Audio File

What Is an Audio File Format?

The audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio on a computersystem like PC, mobile phone, etc. Audio information are stored as bits in thefile and can be called as bit layout.These bit layout can be uncompressed, or compressed using lossless or lossyencoding.

Audio File Formats and Sound Quality

Audio file types (From: all audio file formats are equal. Sample rate and bit depth determine theresolution, the frequency range and the dynamic range of the audio. Thestandard for CD quality audio is a sample rate of 44.1kHz, and a bit depth of16-bit.Anything below this and your audio is not considered High-Definition (HD) orHigh-Resolution. Many audio file formats use settings lower than whatqualifies as HD. The reasons are explained in the following sections.> All the music you listen to, should at the very least, have a sampling rate> of 44.1kHz (44100Hz). This rate captures frequencies up to 22050Hz, just> above the limit of human hearing (~20kHz).

Uncompressed Audio Format

If your audio files are uncompressed, they are 100% bit-for-bit identical asthe producer created them in, digital copies.Uncompressed formats are created using pulse code modulation, PCM. This is thesame format used for CDs and DVDs.So if your master studio has the following bits:1100110011000000The PCM track will contain the exact same bits:1100110011000000Sampling and quantization of a signal for PCM (From: Wikipedia)Large File SizeSince the PCM is uncompressed, uncompressed files take up a huge amount ofdisc space. The only suitable portable medium to hold such files are on discssuch as CD, DVDs or even Blu-ray disc. (RIP HD DVD)

Choose uncompressed audio format if..

If you are mastering and mixing raw audio, go for uncompressed audio format.Working with the uncompressed audio format like WAV and AIFF is akin toworking on the “original” copy where you have all the information that youneed.

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You Are Here Home Page Audio Interfaces

Audio Interfaces

* * *Audio Interfaces take all the various audio inputs and convert them intodigital audio data. Though that sounds straight-forward, this was easily the most confusing partfor me as I began the quest to design my own home studio. This piece of hardware will end up being the front end for nearly all theinputs that will be used in your home recording studio.Digital audio, electrical analog audio, and MIDI data will all come togetherin this great sonic melting pot.It acts as the central hub for all the various Audio Signals in your setup…taking them from your finger tips and vocal cords and into the digital realm.By handling all the audio input and output signals of your system it performsthe same function as the Sound Card in a typical computer. The main differences are that Audio Interfaces typically have mic preampsonboard, provide Phantom Power for condenser mics, and have easy-accessexternal inputs and outputs. So technically the terms Sound Card and Audio Interface could be usedinterchangeably.But for our discussion let’s define Sound Cards as hardware internally mountedto your computer, while a studio Audio Interface is an external hardware unitconnected via USB or FireWire.Though there are many options, there are 6 main features to consider whenchoosing Audio Interfaces: 1. Analog / Digital Converters 2. Number of Microphone Preamps 3. Number of Inputs/Outputs 4. Interface Type 5. MIDI Capability 6. Mixing CapabilityRead on for a more detailed explanation of each criteria on our list.You’ll find many hyperlinks throughout this description that aim to supplementthe discussion.If this is all well understood to you, then you can jump to the chase andcheckout my list for Top USB Audio Interfaces for Under $300.For everyone else I strongly recommend having a firm grasp of the main issuesthat are outlined below before shopping for specific units.This may be the single most important decision when creating your home studio,so it’s critical to have a firm grasp of how these work and what they are usedfor.

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5 Easy Ways To Play Electric Guitar Through PC/LaptopSome guitarists insist on buying an expensive amplifier with their electricguitar. They assume that this is a must for every type of guitarist out there.However, in some situations, this isn’t the case. In some cases, you evenwon’t need an amplifier at all and you can manage just fine by using yourPCLaptop as an amplifier for your guitar.This can be an ideal way for beginners to be able to play their electricguitar at home but might not have a budget for a good amp. It can also be thecase for guitarists who can’t crank up their amplifiers due to noiserestrictions from their neighbors. Finally, this is a great tool for beginnerswho either don’t have enough pedals to shape their sound or lack theexperience needed to alter their tone into a desired one.The following ways will provide you a way to play your electric guitar usingyour PC or laptop. By the way, it will not matter whereas your computer is aWindows machine or a Mac.However, all these methods will require some sort of additional hardware, someare cheaper than the others and the quality of it will be accordingly. I willassume that you already own an electric guitar and a guitar cable.For those who are particularly interested in the prices, the most costly wayon this list will be around $100, the others are way cheaper. Nevertheless, itwill not come close to an amp with effects built-in.Let’s take the Fender Champion 20 amp as an example. This amp is ideal forguitar players who play at home and in the same price range. The problem is,the Fender Champion 20 offers several effects in it, but you will not be ableto chain them or customize them.This can eventually be very limiting, especially if you want to try all thoseamazing effects and customizations. After trying any of these methods, theseamps might end up at a garage or the back of a closet, not being used. This iswhat happened to mine.

Choosing a Room for Your Home Recording Studio

An ideal room for a recording studio is one that is big. The bigger thebetter.This allows for more room for gear and musicians, but a bigger room alsoprovides you with better sound.Not only should you choose a big room, but you should also choose one that isquiet.Things like cars, chirping birds, and other outside noises will pose a problemwhen you record if your room is not one of the quieter ones in your home.

How to Make a Recording Studio in Your Room?

1. Take everything out of the room that you can. Clear up as much floor space as possible, and take down any paintings, posters, or anything else that is on the wall, and get rid of anything that vibrates. 2. Set up your acoustic panels and bass traps. 3. Arrange your desk/work area to your liking. 4. Arrange the rest of your room as you see fit.

Exception 2: A Studio Where You Need a Flat Sound for Recording Vocals

If you’re on a small budget, you probably won’t have the money to make a wholevocal recording booth.If you also plan to use reverb plugins, natural room reverb can causeproblems.In this case, you will need your room to sound drier (less natural reverb).Having an extra dead/flat/dry room will affect the sound accuracy that comesout of your monitors.With this trade-off, you’ll probably have to mix mainly with headphones.The drier you need your room to be, the more absorption panels you’ll need.

Audio Interfaces

The audio interface is the fuse that creates that connection that will bringyour studio to life. The interface is where the instrument and MIC isinputted. Nowadays interfaces are digital. Focusrite Scarlett 2i2 and theRoland OCTA-Capture UA-1010 have great reputations in the music industry. theycome with different inputs and outputs , preamps and monitor mixes. dependingon the artist that you are you will need a different interface so it will beworth checking out the ultimate guide to audio interfaces for more detail.

Why use a Audio Interface and Not a Soundcard?

It all comes down to accuracy. An audio interface is extremely accurate interms of outputting audio.As a music producer, it’s imperative to know exactly what you’re hearing inits truest form in order to create a good sounding mix that sounds greatthrough headphones, on car stereos, etc.Soundcards may work for casual gaming audio or watching movies, where youmight not need a very accurate sound quality. In the case of making music,soundcards just aren’t powerful enough to output an accurate audiorepresentation, and you might end up tweaking your mix too much to compensatefor what you’re hearing.Some soundcards have boosted bass, for example, which could cause you to mixthe bass of a song way too low to make up for all the bass that you’re hearingthrough your soundcard, and then when you listen to the song on a differentcomputer or in the car, you can tell that the bass is actually mixed too low.An audio interface also provides much lower latency (or virtually no latencyat all). Latency is essentially a delay between your computer playing theaudio and it coming out of your speakers or headphones.Latency can be a problem with soundcards because a computer’s soundcard mightnot have the processing power that your audio needs in order to be played. Anaudio interface has much more power, and therefore lower latency. More poweralso means there’s little to no chance of anything crashing during theproduction process.Audio interfaces are also better because they bypass plenty of electricalcomponents in your computer that could cause a buzzing sound while recording.An audio interface is basically an external soundcard with a lot more power,and it being external means that your audio doesn’t have to use the computer’sinternal power supply, which prevents feedback and buzzing sounds which aredue to interferences caused by the electromagnetic field.

Recording software and apps

Without audio software programs, computers don’t do a whole lot to help yourecord and mix music. The software that musicians and engineers use for theirmusic production is commonly referred to as a digital audio workstation (DAW)program, and there are a lot of different DAW options to choose from. Rangingfrom more basic programs such as Ableton Live 10 Intro to Pro Tools—the choiceof most professional studios—there is a DAW program that will match yourmusic, budget and skills. For a complete selection of program options, browsethe Musician’s Friend selection of DAW software.Most digital audio interfaces (explained in the next section) often includesome basic software that should be suitable for most beginners to create near-studio-quality recordings. Those looking for something a little morepowerful—with tools to help compose, edit, mix, and arrange music—mightconsider a software package such as Image Line’s FL Studio, an end-to-endmusic production program that’s both highly-regarded and affordable enough forbeginners.Check out our 6 Top DAWs Rundown for more great DAW choices.

Audio Interfaces for Recording

If you’re using a computer as the center of your recording studio, you need away to plug in the microphones and other gear you will be recording with. Thisis where the digital audio interface comes in. Beyond simply offering thetypes of connections you’ll need, the digital audio interface processes thesound you’re recording and converts it to digital data so your software canwork with it. The good news is that most interfaces with USB connectivity arecompatible with all the major DAW software titles that work with Mac andWindows computers‹but double-check to be certain.When looking at audio interfaces, it’s important to find one that has all theconnection types you’ll need. You’ll also need to make sure it’s compatiblewith the type of computer or device you’ll use to record with. So be sure tocheck the product descriptions for these details.Built to handle the needs of anyone who records vocals and instrumenttogether, the Focusrite Scarlett Solo (3rd Gen) USB Audio Interface delivers asweet-sounding preamp and instrument input at a great price. The latestedition improves on the excellent sound of the original with a more even gainstructure that makes balancing your mixes easier. The instrument input hasbeen upgraded to handle the hottest pickups. Reduced latency means you’llperform more confidently and be able to run your favorite plug-ins in realtime.Read our Audio Interface Buying Guide to learn more about all the optionsavailable to match your recording needs and budget.

Headphones for recording

When you listen back to your recordings, you want the sound to be as accurateas possible so you know what you want to change in your mixes. A good pair ofstudio headphones is often the most cost-effective option for beginners.Closed-back headphones are essential when you’re recording vocal orinstrumental parts over existing music tracks. Their sealed design preventspre-recorded sound from leaking into the microphone as you monitor the backingtrack(s) while overdubbing new parts of the music.Studio headphones vary greatly in price. When you’re just starting out,there’s no need to break the bank. Plenty of good, accurate models areavailable within an affordable price range. The Audio-Technica ATH-M40x andSennheiser HD 280 PRO Studio Headphones are both highly rated products thatdeliver good accuracy at a beginner-friendly price.Browse the Musician’s Friend collection of studio headphones for more greatoptions.

An Audio Interface

In addition to a computer, you will need a good audio interface. A single-input USB audio interface for beginners will cost around $100. This will allowyou to record one instrument or microphone at a time. As a solo musicproducer, this is perfectly fine to get started. Brands that come widelyrecommended include Presonus and Focusrite.For what it’s worth, I have been using a pre-owned M-Audio interface purchasedon eBay, which hasn’t had any problems since I got it in 2010. If you are notafraid of pre-owned gear, check out Reverb for good deals. Just be sure(especially on eBay) to check out the seller’s return policy, shipping feesand reputation before purchasing.

Audio Interface (If you buy an analog microphone)

Tascam US-2×2 USB Audio Interface – via Amazon.comAn audio interface connects microphones to computers.If you buy a USB microphone, you don’t need an audio interface, since you canplug into your computer directly.But an analog microphone has XLR connectors, which can’t be plugged indirectly. Instead, you plug them into an audio interface, which can then sendthe audio data to your computer.Audio interfaces can cost anything from $100 to the $1,000 range. Forpodcasters, the low-end interfaces will be more than sufficient in most cases.Here are a few popular recommendations. 1. Tascam US-2×2 USB Audio Interface: This is a budget audio interface with 2 XLR input slots. It’s compatible with both Mac OSX and Windows. It’s also designed to be simple to use, which is why it’s great for most podcasters. 2. Mackie Onyx Producer 2-2 2×2 USB Audio Interface With MIDI: This is another budget audio interface in the same price range, also with 2 XLR input slots. There’s no huge difference from the Tascam audio interface, it’s just another solid alternative.There are audio interfaces that produce higher sound quality and accept moreinputs, but they’re more aimed at musicians than podcasters. Unless you have aunique podcasting setup, either of the above 2 audio interfaces is simpleoptions that will do a great job.

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Wooden Office Table With Golden Lining

Computer Lab Wooden Table

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Wooden Office Table With Golden Lining

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pcbinary June 27, 2021 0 Comments

Wireless TV headphones with a base station

How to Connect Wired Headphones to Your TV

You don’t only have to connect your headphones to your laptop!

1. How to Connect Infrared Wireless Headphones to TV

Infrared is typically used for short-range transmission—up to one meter—andcan transport data at 16 Mbps (at most). It is the technology used for remotecontrols and some wireless TV headphones. However, the biggest shortcoming ofthis technology is that infrared receivers must have an unobstructed view ofinfrared transmitters so as to efficiently receive the signal.Any obstacles will significantly affect the connection quality. In addition,infrared has a shorter connectivity range than Bluetooth. However, some peoplebelieve that infrared delivers better sound quality than Bluetooth.

2. How to Connect Radio Frequency Wireless Headphones to TV

Radio frequency is the band used for broadcasting and communicationstransmission. The frequency has one advantage over Bluetooth: it can transferaudio in a range of up to 100 m. But it is not without faults. Because manyelectronic devices use radio frequency, the quality of the connection can beaffected by devices such as mobile phones and microwaves. Devices that use thesame frequency as radio frequency headphones (900MHz-3.2GHz) will interferewith the connection by causing noise.

3. How to Connect Bluetooth Wireless Headphones to TV

Since there are so many Bluetooth devices out there, featuring differentBluetooth codecs, how do you connect your Bluetooth headphones to your TV?There are two ways to go about it.If you have a pair of Bluetooth headphones, but your TV doesn’t supportBluetooth, you can use a Bluetooth audio transmitter. This is a device you canplug into your TV audio output that allows for the transmission of audiothrough Bluetooth to your headphones. We recommend TaoTronics TT-BA01 as itoffers a quick way to connect your wireless headphones to your TV.If your TV has Bluetooth support, put your headset on pairing mode. You’llnotice a blue blinking dot next to the Bluetooth icon to show that it is inpairing mode. Also, be sure to enable the Bluetooth function in your TVsettings.

1. The Headphones and the Transmitter Must Both Feature Bluetooth Aptx

with Low LatencyIf you want to know the nitty-gritty of how to connect your TV to Bluetoothheadphones, we have the answers you’re looking for.There are a myriad of Bluetooth transmitters and transceivers (devices thatcan transmit and receive digital signals) on the market. But if you truly wantto have a great TV experience, you must choose those featuring Bluetooth aptXlow latency codec. Bluetooth aptX will not be enough.AptX low latency is a Bluetooth codec by Qualcomm that ensures Bluetoothwireless-enabled devices deliver sound in sync with visual media. It minimizesdelay and enhances end-to-end speed of audio transmission, leading to asynchronized, high-quality user experience.Devices that support this codec will ensure that the audio remainssynchronized with the video, and that there’s no delay between what you see onthe TV and what you hear on your headphones.If your Bluetooth headphones don’t support aptX low latency, you can get thosethat do, like TaoTronics Bluetooth headphones. They ensure there’s no sounddelay and that you have an awesome TV experience. But there’s one importantthing—your TV must also support this codec.Some Bluetooth headphones don’t support aptX low latency, which is a must ifyou want to steer clear of annoying sound delays.

1. How to Connect Bluetooth Wireless Headphones to Apple TV

Step 1: On the home screen of your Apple TV, go to Settings.Step 2: Click on Remotes and Devices, then click on Bluetooth.Step 3: Turn on your headphones and put them in pairing mode.Step 4: Give the TV a few seconds to search for Bluetooth devices.Step 5: You’ll see your headphones pop up and you can choose them from thelist.Step 6: The TV may ask for a pin as some Bluetooth devices require a pin. Typeit to activate pairing.**

2. How to Connect Bluetooth Wireless Headphones to Amazon Fire TV

Step 1: Power on your Bluetooth headphones and put them in pairing mode.Step 2: In the main menu of your fire TV, scroll down to Settings.Step 3: Click on Controllers then Bluetooth devices. Select Other BluetoothDevices.Step 4: Wait for a few seconds till your headphones appear in the DiscoveredDevices list.Step 5: Click on them and wait till pairing is complete.**

3. How to Connect Bluetooth Wireless Headphones to Roku

Step 1: Download the latest version of the Official Roku app on your phone ortablet.Step 2: Ensure the Roku streaming device and your phone/tablet are on the sameWi-Fi network.Step 3: To connect your phone/tablet to your Bluetooth headphones, check theDetected Devices on the phone/tab and select the headphones from the list.Step 4: Open the Roku app and click on the Remote tab found at the bottom ofthe screen.Step 5: Activate the pairing button on your headphones and the Bluetoothconnection on your phone/tablet.Step 6: Tap on the headset icon on the Roku app and start streaming audio.**

5. How to Connect Bluetooth Wireless Headphones to PS4 Pro/PS4 Slim

Step 1: Open PS4 settings and click on Devices then Bluetooth Devices.Step 2: Look for your headset’s name and click on it.Step 3: If it connects, you’re good to go.If this doesn’t work, get a USB adapter like the Taotronics Bluetooth 4.0 USBAdapter and follow this process.Step 1: Put the USB adapter in the PS4 USB opening.Step 2: Power on your Bluetooth headset.Step 3: Click on PS4 Settings, Devices, and then Audio Devices.Step 4: Select Output Device then USB Headset.Step 5: Select Volume Control and make the necessary adjustments.Step 6: Select Output to Headphones then choose All Audio.**

6. How to Connect Your LG HD TV to Your Bluetooth Headphones

Step 1: Click on the Quick Settings menu and scroll down to the Sound Outputoption.Step 2: Select the Bluetooth menu and switch on your Bluetooth headphones. Setthem to pairing mode.Step 3: The TV will automatically search for devices it can pair to and detectyour headphones.Step 4: Once your headset appears in the Paired Devices menu, click on it tomake it your primary audio output.There we go! How to do most types of connections, including how to connectyour LG HD TV to your Bluetooth headphones!

Wireless TV headphones with a base station

Sign up to reveal product imageDesigned exclusively for indoor listening, these are the best headphones forlistening to your TV our lab has found so far. They’re fantastic all-rounders,sounding great regardless of what you listen to. The base station has anextremely long wireless range and by putting them back on this dock betweenuses, they’re always charged whenever you need them – it couldn’t be easier.Sign up to reveal product imageFor film and TV programme use, these headphones truly excel,, where the soundis rich, enveloping and voices clear, and there is lovely sparkle to the highfrequencies. Even better, there is no sound leakage, so you can even listen inthe same room as others without disturbing them. The impressive battery lifelasts for nearly 30 hours between charges as well.Pricing and recommendations correct as of January 2021.

Bluetooth headphones for your TV

A lot of newer TVs now support Bluetooth. So if yours does, the good news isthat you have far more choice in choosing wireless headphones for TV use – thevast majority of wireless headphones connect via Bluetooth (base stationheadphones are the only main exception). The only significant downside ofusing Bluetooth headphones with your TV is they don’t have the easy chargingdock base station that dedicated TV headphones have.While you could connect any style of Bluetooth headphones to your Bluetooth-enabled TV, most will likely choose the added comfort of over-ear headphones,or on-ear headphones if you’d like them to be less bulky, both of which have aheadband that goes over the top of your head.Many excellent over-ear headphones contain noise cancelling technology toblock out sounds on a commute. There’s no harm in using these at home (you canturn the noise cancelling off, too), but be aware that you’re paying a premiumfor this technology, so if you don’t plan to use the headphones out of thehouse, you could save money by avoiding models with this feature.Pros: Convenient if you’d like headphones to connect to other devices as well(such as your smartphone) and take outside, much wider selection of headphonesto choose fromCons: Requires a Bluetooth-enabled TV, charging isn’t as convenient as withbase station headphones and you may find the controls on your headphones (egto change volume) don’t work with your TV. Many Bluetooth headphones come withvery short charging cables that aren’t ideal for use in a living room, soyou’ll likely need to buy an (inexpensive) extension cable. If you connectyour headphones to several Bluetooth devices in your home (such as smartphoneand laptop as well as your TV), you may need to keep switching activeconnections.Examples of Bluetooth wireless headphones include:Our experts select the most suitable, great-sounding and comfortable wirelessheadphones for TV use available to buy in the table below.Only logged-in members can view our recommendations in the table below. Ifyou’re not yet a member, you can get instant access by joining Which?.

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pcbinary June 27, 2021 0 Comments

Wireless Mouse Black Friday Deals 2020

20 Best Wireless Mouse Black Friday Deals 2020

Wireless Mouse Black Friday 2020 & Cyber Monday Deals – Are you looking forthe top Wireless Mouse discount offers? If yes, you are lucky to be here asthe many brands offering a big fat discount on Wireless Mouse in Black Fridayand Cyber Monday deals this season. If Yes then take a look at our latestoffer and coupons of Wireless Mouse Black Friday 2020 Deals through which youcan save a lot of bucks and play your favorite game all day.You can easily save around 60% OFF on these most useful from top stores likeWalmart, Best Buy, Home Depot, and Amazon. Check the complete information ofthe Best Wireless Mouse in detail. I have chosen some Wireless Mouse BlackFriday & Cyber Monday Sale & Deals 2020 for you. So don’t miss this chance andgrab the best deals here.Black Friday began as a US tradition started and is always the Fridayimmediately after the Thanksgiving holiday, which is how we arrived at thedate of December 01 above. As always, Cyber Monday is, well, the Mondayimmediately after Black Friday Deals 2020. So using all our fingers and twocalendars, we’ve worked out which means it’ll be happening on Monday 2December.

Wireless Mouse Black Friday Deals 2020

Black Friday & Cyber Monday deals for Wireless Mouse are already here. This isthe best time to pick up a Wireless Mouse for yourself or as a gift for agamer friend. You can save up to 50% on a mouse during Black Friday and CyberMonday. I have chosen some Wireless Mouse Black Friday & Cyber Monday Sale &Deals 2020 for you. So don’t miss this chance and grab the best deals here.Walmart.comWalmart.comWalmart.comWalmart.comWalmart.comConclusionsThese were the top 10 best Wireless Mouse black Friday offers of 2020. We hopethat you found it helpful our list for the Wireless Mouse discount offers toselect the right one that could provide you with good value and performance asyou expected. So If you still have any question or suggestions regardingWireless Mouse, you can write to us in the comment section below, we will getback to you ASAP.The Best Time to Buy a Computer (Plus, Top Deals Right Now)

Best Logitech Mouse black friday Deals 2021:

$14.99~~$ 39.99~~in stock60 new from $14.998 used from $27.95as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$19.99~~$ 29.99~~in stock45 new from $19.952 used from $29.98as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$20.62~~$ 39.99~~in stock58 new from $20.622 used from $19.99as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$24.99~~$ 39.99~~in stock31 new from $24.994 used from $21.99as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$28.94in stock58 new from $28.949 used from $24.99as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$29.99in stock2 new from $29.99as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$39.99~~$ 79.99~~in stock25 new from $39.9910 used from $35.00as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$39.99in stock2 new from $39.99as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$99.99in stock2 new from $99.997 used from $94.95as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shipping$99.99~~$ 149.99~~in stock14 new from $99.996 used from $99.99as of December 7, 2020 10:16 amAmazon.comFree shippingLooking for best Logitech Mouse black friday deals 2021 for your daliy use. Wewill manually hand picks the best Logitech Mouse black friday deals and updatethis page daily. Choosing a suitable electric razor is one of the key elementsin getting a close, comfortable and enjoyable shave. There’s a plethora ofdifferent models out there and what may work best for someone won’tnecessarilly be the right choice for you. Save up to $50 on Logitech Mousewise shaver during holiday season. Check this out Logitech Mouse black fridayand black friday deals and purchase 2021 below. the black friday is almost here with never-before deals and exclusive offersfrom the renowned brands in the market. You can easily look for the best blackfriday deals 2021 and grab the most suitable Logitech Mouse black friday dealfor you. for you where you can get up to 60% off on these top-selling and muchmore. We all know black friday 2021 is the day after Thanksgiving Day 2021”celebrated in the United States. black friday is the biggest shopping event ofthe year for the US. On this day, there is a huge discount on shopping. Checkout the list of best Logitech Mouse black friday and black friday below.

Logitech Mouse black friday Deals [2021]:

Here we listed the best Best Logitech Mouse black friday Deals of 2021. Ourexperts teams scans all the prime day Ads and online retailers like Amazon,Best Buy, Walmart and short list the top quality products with Prime day dealson Logitech Mouse. With amazing specials for Thanksgiving Day, black friday,black friday, and every day in between, our Cyber Deal Days event is the timeto save on electric shaver and Logitech Mouse

Best Black Friday Deals On TVs

Black Friday wouldn’t be Black Friday without significant discounts on TVs.Televisions from Sony, LG, Samsung and more are marked down, and we’re seeingsavings of up to $1000. We’ve also got you covered if you’re looking for evenmore Black Friday TV deals.Samsung Electronics America

Best Black Friday Deals On Phones

Black Friday deals on the new iPhone 12 probably isn’t in the cards, but thereare some great savings on other phones from Samsung, Sony, and more as of now.* * *

Best Black Friday Deals on Headphones

Black Friday is one of the best times to score really great headphones at upto 50% off. Whether you’re in the market for ear buds, over-the-earheadphones, wireless models, or noise-canceling technology, you’ll findsomething here.Target

Best Black Friday Deals On Cameras

If you’re in the market for a new DSLR or mirrorless camera or you want toupgrade your lenses, there are a few deals available right now. As BlackFriday gets closer, we’ll likely see even more sales on cameras pop up.* * *

Are any Black Friday wireless mouse deals too good to be true?

With so many deals, it is inevitable that some are better than others. Someretailers use Black Friday as an excuse to get rid of old and outdated stockthat they otherwise struggle to sell. That means you should always do yourresearch beforehand — read reviews and check specs to ensure any product yousee on sale actually meets your needs. You don’t want to get drawn in by ahuge discount, only to find out the device is hopelessly outdated and doesn’tdo what you need it to.Another thing to be aware of is the range of high-pressure tactics used bysome online shops. You might see a countdown timer warning you there isn’tlong left to make your purchase. Other places issue warnings that othershoppers have already added your item to their baskets. Whatever tactics areused, it’s important not to panic — if a deal isn’t right for you, the numberof other people looking at it is totally irrelevant. Do your research and youwill be in a good place to find a great deal.

Where to find the best wireless mouse sales

* Amazon Black Friday: Amazon has plenty of great wireless mouse deals as part of its ongoing season-long holiday sales. * Best Buy Black Friday: Wireless mice don’t have to cost a lot if you check out Best Buy this holiday shopping season. * Walmart Black Friday: Walmart has big discounts on many wireless mice among its extended Black Friday deals.We strive to help our readers find the best deals on quality products andservices, and we choose what we cover carefully and independently. The prices,details, and availability of the products and deals in this post may besubject to change at anytime. Be sure to check that they are still in effectbefore making a purchase. Digital Trends may earn commission on products purchased through our links,which supports the work we do for our readers.

Best Black Friday tablet deals

Some of the hottest sales today are a Fire tablet deal and a Samsung Galaxytablet deal. See more discounts below:

Best Black Friday gaming chair deals

One of the hottest sales today is for the Emerge Vortex gaming chair deal atStaples. See more discounts below:

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pcbinary June 27, 2021 0 Comments

Windows 10 Issue to Update Graphics Driver

How to Update Driver Software on Windows 10 PC

Published on November 1, 2014 By Amit KumarHow to update driver on Windows 10 Computer, Step by step guide to updatedriver software on Windows 10 PC !!As we all know, Device driver (also known as Driver) is a computer programthat controls a specific type of device that is connected to a computer. Anydevice which you connect to your computer will not work properly if the Driveris not available on your computer.Even, sometimes the hardware device doesn’t work smoothly and doesn’t installautomatically on your computer if the drivers is not updated. Simply it can besaid, you need to update drivers in your Windows system for enjoying thesmooth performance of all those devices that are based on the drivers.In this Windows guide, we are going to show you – how you can update driversoftware on your Windows 10 PC very quickly and with few simple clicks. Let’ssee step by step instructions:See also: How to Customize Windows 10 Installation with Winreducer

Method 1: Update video drivers through Windows Update

You can download and install the new video drivers through Windows Update.Follow the steps below: 1) On your keyboard, press the Windows logo key and R key at the same time toinvoke the Run command.2) Type devmgmt.msc and press Enter to open Device Manager.3) In Device Manager, expand the Display adapters category. Right click yourgraphics card and select Update driver (In some cases, this might be UpdateDriver Software). 4) In the pop-up window, you will see two options. Click Search automaticallyfor updated driver software. Then Windows will find and install drivers foryour video device automatically.Repeat the steps above to update drivers for each graphics card if you’veinstalled more than one graphics card.

Use Windows Update to update graphics drivers

One of the easiest ways to update a driver is to use Windows’ built-in tool,called Windows Update, which comes with Windows 7 and Windows 10. The driversyou get from Windows Update are fine-tuned and certified by the WindowsHardware Quality Labs (WHQL). While these drivers typically aren’t the verylatest versions, they are very stable.Perform the following steps to upgrade your GPU drivers using Windows Update:

Update your graphics drivers using Windows Update on Windows 10

1. Open the Start menu and click on Settings (next to the little cog icon). 2. On the next screen, select Windows Update & Security. You can check for updates here.Any GPU drivers that are found will be installed automatically.

Use Windows Device Manager to manually upgrade graphics drivers

In most circumstances, Windows Update won’t find a new driver. Although thecompanies that manufacture the graphics hardware usually release updates everymonth, with bug fixes and optimizations for new games, it takes a while forthese changes to make their way through the Microsoft certification process(if the company even bothers).In Windows Update, you usually see a date next to each entry. If your graphicsdriver is older than three or four months, try using Windows Device Manager toupgrade to the latest driver.Before you get started, it’s wise to create a system recovery point. Thisbacks up all your current drivers, allowing you to return to the previousstate in case anything goes wrong.To create your backup, right-click on Computer (on your desktop) and selectProperties. Click on the System Protection item on the left. In the nextwindow, click on System Protection, select Create, and follow the instructionson the screen.Now that you’ve created a backup, follow the steps below to update yourdrivers.

Update graphics card drivers on Windows 7

1. Right-click on the Computer icon on your desktop, and choose Properties. Then, open Device Manager. 2. Go to Audio, Video and Game Controller. Look for an entry for your graphics card, which looks something like this:You’re looking for anything that says graphics, VGA, Intel, AMD, or NVIDIA under the “Display Adapters” heading. 3. Double-click on the entry for your graphics card and switch to the Driver tab. Click on Update Driver. 4. Select Search automatically for updated driver software. 5. If that doesn’t turn up anything new (which should not worry you, because there doesn’t have to be an updated version of your driver), repeat steps 1-3 and instead select Browse my computer for driver software. 6. Windows now prompts you for a driver location. If you haven’t downloaded a driver yet, skip below to learn how to get your graphics drivers. 7. Found the right driver? If it didn’t come with an installer, then extract that file from the directory to which you downloaded the file. The file almost certainly ends in “.inf” (such as “oem148.inf” or “intelgpu.inf”). 8. Click on Let me pick from a list of available drivers on my computer. 9. Click on Have Disk and then Browse. Find the folder of the new graphics driver you just downloaded. Double-click on the .inf file. 10. Click on Next to install the driver. Your display might go blank a few times, but when it comes back, you’ll see something like this:(In some cases you might be prompted to reboot your computer, so be sure tofollow this advice.) 11. You got it! If you like, explore the new options the manufacturer provides in the graphics control panel. To get to it, right-click on the desktop, then find Intel HD Graphic Options, NVIDIA Control Panel, or AMD Radeon Settings.

Update graphics drivers on Windows 10

1. Click on the Start menu and type in the words Device Manager. You are automatically presented with a few results, such as those in the screenshot below:Click on Device Manager. 2. Look for an entry in the list that’s related to your graphics card. It could be “graphics,” “Standard VGA Controller,” “Intel Graphics,” “AMD Radeon,” “NVIDIA GeForce,” or another brand name. 3. Double-click on the graphics card entry. There’s a separate Driver tab — click on that to see the options. Click on Update Driver. 4. Select Search automatically for updated driver software. That may find an update for you. If not, repeat steps 1-3 and instead select Browse my computer for driver software. 5. To use this option, you need to manually choose a driver. Read the section below about where to find graphics drivers. 6. Found a driver? It may come with its own installer. If not, look for the file (usually ending in .inf) in your downloads directory. Click on Let me pick from a list of available drivers on my computer. 7. Click on Have Disk and then Browse. Browse to the folder that contains the new drive 8. Click on Next to install the driver. Shortly, you should see something like this: 9. Success! Your graphics drivers are now up-to-date.If you like, explore the new graphics control panel to learn about newfeatures or adjust settings. To do so, right-click on the Windows desktop, andfind Intel HD Graphic Options, NVIDIA Control Panel, AMD Radeon Settings, orthe name of the driver to discover its new options.

Use Device Manager to Update Drivers in Windows 10

There is another manual process as well which many people opt for. Beforediscussing the software where you can get a one-click solution, let’s checkanother manual process. You can do it from your device manager as well. Followthese below-explained steps and learn how to update drivers in Windows 10using Device Manager: * First of all, right-click on the Windows 10 Start button and then select the Device Manager option from the power user menu. * On the Device Manager, expand the desired device category to see the names of devices. * Now right-click on the device driver you’d like to update and then select the Update Driver option. * Next, on the Update Drivers window, click on the “Search automatically for updated driver software” option.Now the Windows will search your computer and the Internet for the latestdriver for your device and install it if available. If there is no latestdriver software for your device is available, it will notify you that as well.In case, Windows can’t find any latest driver, you can manually update thegraphics driver by going to the manufacturer’s website and then downloadingthe latest driver and installing it on your systems.

How to Update Windows 10 Bluetooth Driver Automatically

Sometimes Windows falls behind when it comes to receiving manufactures updatesin case of new Bluetooth drivers. We’ll have a look at a driver updater toolwhich will help you automatically update Windows 10 Bluetooth driver and whichhardly falls behind updates.

Update Windows Drivers by Intel Driver Update Utility:

In your windows PC, You also can update your drivers by Intel Driver UpdateUtility. You will have to download it from here:, This tool won’t update all drivers. It will only detect and installupdates for a very limited number of drivers. * However, After downloading intel driver update utility, Install, launch it. * Then, Click on Scan. It will automatically scan your PC and look for the latest driver updates. * After a few seconds/minutes, You will have the driver lists which should be updated. You can download them by clicking on Download Button. * After that install them normally.

Windows 10 Issue to Update Graphics Driver

If you are using Windows 10, then Windows automatically makes a list of thelatest drivers then downloads and installs it for you. In the creator updateof Windows 10, Microsoft is much stricter about driver update though previousOS versions like Windows 7 and 8 allow driver updates via Windows Update. Allthose update procedures occur automatically, and you need not do anythingabout this if and only if the automatic update turned off manually.If you want to upgrade Windows 7/8 to Windows 10, You may read this- How toupgrade windows 7 to windows 10Sometimes “Windows update.” overwrites an available newer version over anolder version though you install your hardware drivers from CD which came withthe product. However, Windows 10 is intelligent enough not to overwrite theGraphics Drivers because overwriting may cause a new problem while gaming orGraphics related works. Windows 10 has a built-in driver update utility, so itis not necessary to worry about update the problem while you are runningWindows 10 on your Personal computer.Use the Control Panel of your Graphics Driver to check the version no which isinstalled now on your PC and you also can download the latest drivers from thepanel. Manufactures like NVIDIA, AMD Radeon, and even Intel HD Graphicsprovide control panels that automatically test and check an option to downloadand install the most recent Graphics Driver for your PC. You only have to openthe Graphics Control Panel whichever is on your laptop or personal computer.The manufacturer’s website is the best source for downloading the latestGraphics Driver package for Graphics hardware. I will suggest you not to relyon the CD (Compact Disk) always which comes with the product. If you are agame lover and play High Definition games on your PC, then you should rely onthe manufacturer’s website to update the Graphics software. In every update,they add new game compatibility and fixes errors in the previous version.After all, these updates are actually for those who play PC games.

How to update drivers on Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10 manually

(device manager) 1. First, install an extracting utility such as WinRAR. 2. Go to the manufacturer’s site to find the driver you want to update. To help you see the process, for the rest of this example I updated an old Intel Iris HD 520 (GPU) driver for my Surface Book. 3. On the hardware maker’s site — here, Intel’s Drivers Site — find the latest version for your device. Note that often you need to know the exact model number as well as which Windows operating system you have (Windows 7, 8, 10) and which architecture (32-Bit/x86 or 64-Bit/x64).Some third party sites have access to even newer drivers. One good andreputable site is LaptopVideo2Go for anything to do with GPUs, sound, network,and chipset drivers. While a bit geeky (you need to know exactly what graphicschipset and generation you have), you often find drivers just a few days old. 4. Download the driver. It probably is stored in an archived format, such as ZIP or RAR. Double-click on it to let it auto-extract or right-click on the file and select Extract Here. 5. You probably now likely see a folder with a lot of cryptic file names, like this one:If you’re lucky, one of those files is called Setup or Install, which makesyour life easy. But it’s just as likely that an installation tool isn’tincluded. In that case, you need to open Device Manager and use it to installthe driver manually.Important: Remember the folder where you downloaded these files. For example,C:UsersYOUR_USERNAMEDownloads 6. Open Device Manager by right-clicking on the Windows orb (Start button) in the lower task bar and selecting Device Manager. You can also open Device Manager by clicking the Windows key and R at the same time and typing in the following:Choose OK. 7. Next, search for the category of device to update. In our case, that’s the Display adapters category. Expand it and select the driver to refresh: 8. Double-click on that entry and select the Drivers tab. Choose the Update drivers button, then choose the Browse button to find your driver update files.Now go to the folder of the installed drivers. 9. Click the OK button and then click on Next. 10. Done! Hopefully the new driver gives you more features, better performance, and fewer bugs.

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pcbinary June 27, 2021 0 Comments

Why do computers need output devices

Video input devices[edit]

MicrosoftKinectsensor, works by detecting human motion visuallyVideo input devices are used to digitize images or video from the outsideworld into the computer. The information can be stored in a multitude offormats depending on the user’s requirement.Examples of types of a video input devices include:

What are the input/output devices of my computer?

All computers have a hard drive, as they could not function without it. Today,most computers have a CD-RW or DVD-RW drive, network card, and a sound card(or onboard sound on the motherboard), which are all input/output devices.Some people consider a sound card to be more of an output device, but it doeshave input capabilities as well. A microphone can connect to a computerthrough the sound card, allowing the sound card to accept sound (input) andsend it to the computer.If you save files to access on other computers or want to copy files from onecomputer to another, use a USB flash drive.Older computers used to have a floppy diskette drive and a modem, but both areseldomly used anymore and not found on most computers today.

What is the reason for the input device of the computer function?

August 26, 2020 by Louie SharpIf you have a computer with working input devices on your PC, this guide mighthelp.In computing, an input device is a device that is used to transmit data andcontrol signals to an information processing system such as a computer orinformation device. Keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras, joysticks, andmicrophones are examples of input devices.

Video Input Devices

Video capture devices are used to digitize images or videos from the outsideworld to a computer. Information can be stored in various formats depending onthe needs of the user.

What are the output devices of my computer?

Every computer has a monitor, an audio adapter, and a GPU (either onboard ordiscrete). Each of these is an output device. A printer is also very commonlyused with computers. Depending on the type of computer and how the computer isused, other output devices may be used with a computer. The best method ofdetermining all of the output devices your computer has is to go through thelist above.

Why do computers need output devices?

A computer can still work without an output device. However, you’d have no wayof determining what the computer is doing. By using an output device, you canview and get the results of input from a computer.

Types of Input Devices

Some input devices are handled directly by users to enter data and sendcommands. Common examples include keyboards and computer mice. Smart phone andlaptop touchscreens also fall into this category, as do the touchpads that arecommon substitutes for mice on many laptops.Some users may prefer more specialized input devices for certain tasks. Forexample, frequent video game players often prefer specialized video gamecontrollers that can be connected to gaming PCs. They’re similar to thecontrollers used with stand-alone video-game console systems.Artists and designers often use another specialized type of input device knownas a drawing tablet. These allow users to draw on a digital pad with anelectronic stylus, similarly to how they would draw with a traditional pen orpencil on a paper tablet.More esoteric input devices, like foot pedals or handheld clickers that cansend mouse-style signals, also exist for specialized applications, likeadvancing slides hands-free or without needing to sit in front of a computer.

Audio and Video Input Devices

Modern computers and smart phones also include input devices designed forcapturing audio and video. Many phones and laptops include a camera designedto capture visual input and a microphone designed to capture audio signals,all in a digital format the computer or phone can understand. Externalmicrophones and cameras can also be connected.Microphones are also used as input on smart speakers, such as Amazon Echo andGoogle Home devices, which communicate with users chiefly or entirely viasound.Scanners are another common type of visual input device. These include flatbedand handheld scanners used to capture documents as well as the barcodescanners commonly used in retail stores to identify products and look upprices.

Devices to Capture Input Data

This is a major component of this system. Input devices are used to capturetransaction information for accounting purposes. By using specializedmechanisms of operation, they capture data accurately and allow for itsprocessing or storage. Often used by employees, they help to enter thesedetails into accounting information systems. Examples of input devices includekeyboards, scanners, touch pads, modems and bar code scanners.

Picture for a note on classification of computers (Main Frame computers)

The users access a mainframe computer through terminal or personal computer. Atypical mainframe computer can execute 16 million instructions per second.Examples of mainframe computers are • NEC 610 • DEC 10 Uses of Mainframe Computers Mainframe computers are used in large organizations. For example, airlines usethese computers for ticket reservation system. NADRA – The ComputerizedNational Idenity Card Issuer in Pakistan – uses mainframe computers tomaintain the information of population. 4. Super Computers Super computers were introduced in 1980s. Super computer is the fastestcomputer. Super computer is the biggest in size and the most expensive inprice than any other computers.

Picture for a note on classification of computers (Super computers)

It is the most sophisticated, complex and advanced computer. It has a verylarge storage capacity. It can process trillions of instructions in onesecond. Super Computer is the fastest and most powerful computer of a time.Supercomputers are very expensive. Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks.Super computers are used for specialized applications that require immenseamounts of mathematical calculations. Supercomputers were designed primarilyby computer scientist – Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC). Uses of Super Compters include: 1. Weather forecasting, 2. animated graphics like in Hollywood movies, 3. fluid dynamic calculations, 4. nuclear energy research, 5. space science 6. Weapon and missile design 7. and petroleum exploration etc. Today, supercomputers are produced by traditional companies such as Cray, IBMand Hewlett- Packard, who had purchased many of the 1980s companies to gaintheir experience. Since October 2010, the Tianhe-1A supercomputer has been thefastest in the world; it is located in China. The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that asupercomputer channels all its power into executing a single program as fastas possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programsconcurrently. The modern super computer consists of thousands ofmicroprocessors. Super computer uses high-speed facilities such as satellitefor online processing.Examples of super computers are CRAY-XP, ETA-10, and Deep Blue and above allTodays number one super computer is Tianhe-1A supercomputer of China. Aircraftcompanies use super computer to simulate aircraft and check its performance.Many Hollywood movies use it for animation purposes. The Concept of a Computer SystemA system is a set of inter related components that work together to fulfill apurpose. For example a Road Transportation System will consist of the parts -roads, vehicles- trucks, buses, vans, cars etc, passengers, the staff forticketing and maintenance of vehicles and roads etc. And the transportationsystem will fulfill the purpose of carrying of passengers and luggage fromplace to place. Similarly, a computer system consists of many components thatwork together to fulfill the purpose of data processing. A Computer systemconsists of the following four parts: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4. User 1. Hardware The mechanical devices that makeup the computer are called HARDWARE, forexample, Keyboard, hard disk, monitor, processor and mother board etc.Hardware are physical devices. They can be touched. Hardware device areinterconnected and perform input, processing and output operations. 2. Software Software is the set of instructions given to computer to perform a task.Software tells the computer what to do. System Software like operating systemsare used tomanage components and operations of computer. Application Software like MSWord and MS Excel are used to solve specific problems of the user, for examplecreating documents or preparing Student Result Sheet etc. Thousands ofdifferent software are available for use on PC. 3. Data Data is the collection of raw facts. Data processing is the primary job of acomputer. Computer processes data in many ways to convert them into usefulinformation. Processed data becomes information. For example, during census,data of all citizens is collected. Census data is used to getreport/information about total population of a country and literacy rate etc. 4. Users People that operate the computer are called computer operators or computerusers. Users use computer to solve different problems. For example, in acollege a computer operator in Examination Section will feed marks obtained bystudents in a software like MS Excel. He/ She will perform certain functionsand formulae to calculate percentage and grade of each student and prepare aresult sheet. This result sheet will show the marks obtained, percentage,grade and Fail/ Pass status of every student. COMPUTER HARDWAREYou learned earlier that a computer has electronic and mechanical parts knownas hardware. Hardware also includes input devices, output devices, system unit, storagedevices and communication devices. Without these components we would not be able to usethe computer.Input Devices –An input device is any hardware component that allows you the user to enterdata into the computer. There are many input devices. Six of the most widely used input devices are:1. A keyboard — You use the keyboard to type letters, numbers,and symbols into the computer.2. A Mouse –The mouse is a pointing device that has a pointer that changes into different shapes as you use the mouse. You click the mouse by pressing and releasing the button. This action allows you to enter data when using a mouse.3. A Scanner — This input device copies from paper into your computer.4 . A Microphone — The microphone is usually used for voice input into thecomputer.5. A Digital Camer — The digital camera allows you to take pictures that youcan input into your computer.6. A PC Video Camera — The PC video camera allows you take both video and still images that you can input onto your computer. Output Devices:-An output device is any hardware component that gives information to the user. Three commonly used output devices are as follow:1. A Monitor — This output device displays your information on a screen,2. A Printer — This output device prints information on paper. This type of printed output is called a hard copy3.A Speaker — Sound is the type of output you will get from a speaker. COMPUTER SOFTWAREThe computer will not work without software. Software also call programs arethe instructions that tell the computer what to do and how o do it. The twomain categories of software are system software and application software. Thesystem software also called the operating system (OS) actually runs thecomputer. This software controls all the operations of the computer and itsdevices. All computers use system software and without the system software theapplication software will not work. The most common OS on a PC is the Windowsoperating system and for the Mac computer it would be the Mac operatingsystem.Application software is a program that allows users to a specific task on thecomputer. There are a number of different types of application softwareavailable to do many of the tasks we do daily. Four examples of commonapplication software and what they are used for are:Word Processing Application: One word processing program is Microsoft Word.This program allows you to type letters, assignments and do any other writtenactivity on the computer.Spreadsheet Application: Microsoft Excel is an example of a spreadsheetprogram. One can use this program to create charts and do calculations.E-mail Application: Outlook Express is an e-mail program that allows you toreceive and send e-mails.Internet Application: Internet Explorer is a program that allows you to getconnected to the Internet and look at Web sites like the one you are readingnow.It is important to note that when you buy a computer the computer comes withthe operating system and some software already installed. You may have to buymore software and install them on the computer. Install means to load thesoftware onto the hard disk of the computer so that you can run or use thesoftware.Like any other equipment the computer needs to be cared for; let us discusshow we should go about caring for our computer.STORAGE MEDIAStorage keeps data, information and instructions for use in the future. Allcomputers use storage to keep the software that makes the hardware work. As a user you store a variety of data and information on your computer or onstorage media. Storage media are the physical materials on which data,information and instructions are kept. When a user saves information or datato a storage medium he or she is storing a file, and this process is calledwriting. When the file is opened the process is called reading. Common storage mediaare:Hard Drive: This storage medium which looks like the one below, is a harddrive. This medium comes with the computer and is always inside the computer. It stores all the programs that the computer needs to work. In addition usersstore their data and information on the hard drive. Floppy Disk: This storage medium is considered to be a portable storagemedium. You put it into the computer save your information on it, take it out,and take it with you wherever you go. CD&DVD: These types of storage media hold much more information than a floppydisk. They are also considered portable storage. These types of storage mediacome in different forms. This means that there are CDs and DVDs that you canonly save information on but you cannot erase the information. In additionthere are those that can both save information on and erase the informationyou have saved. USB Flash Drive: This is a storage medium that is very easy to carry aroundand it also holds more data than a floppy disk. As you can see from thepicture below it is very small when compared with the others. COMPUTER CARETaking care of your computer is just as important as taking care of yourbooks. Both the internal and the external parts of the computer have to becared for. Scanning, defragging and reformatting are some of the activitiesperformed to clean up the hard drive. These activities are best left to agrown up and such you should not attempt them. However, there are certaintasks you can perform to ensure you computer is clean; here are a few:Keep Dust Away: Dust your computer to keep it free of dust and dirt.Keep Food Away: Do not eat or drink while working on the computer.Use Clean Hands: Make sure your hands are clean before you type on thekeyboard of click the mouse.Treat With Respect: If you are having problems with your computer, ask forhelp. Do not bang or hit the computer.Keep Off: Seeing that the computer is connected to electricity, this meansthat lightning could be conducted to your computer through the electricalconnection. For this reason it is best not to use your computer during astorm.Stop Virus Attact: A computer virus is a program written by a person onpurpose to harm other peoples’ computers. A computer virus is passed from onecomputer o another when you share and download files without the protection ofan antivirus software. For this reason you should get permission beforedownloading files.Handle With Care: The way you handle your CDs will determine how log they willlast. Always hold the CD correctly as shown in the picture below.The Fetch Execute Cycle Computer Science EssayWithin this report about Computer Hardware, the report will cover the mainconcepts of computer hardware. Within this report there will be informationabout the main concepts of a computer system also. These main concepts willinclude Processors, Memory (Primary and Secondary), Input and output devicesunder the user types and networking, and support elements that will help theoverall performance of a computer.Get Help With Your EssayIf you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writingservice is here to help!Find out moreProcessors are parts of the computer that heart and brain of every computer,as it allows the processing of data in the computer system as well as theallowing instructions to be stored onto memory. The processor communicateswith all the components of the computer. It mostly helps with the hardware,memory, and RAM of the computer or laptop

Functions of Computer

There are four core functions of the computer, as explained below:Input: Whatever is given to a computer is called the input. The input data isgiven to the computer using the input devices. The computer only takes data ina binary form (raw format). The input devices help convert the entered data inthe binary form to be understandable by the computer. Data can be inputted invarious forms, such as letters, numbers, images, etc.Processing: Processing is the primary function of the computer. CPU helps toprocess the data according to the instructions entered into the computersystem. The processing of data is an internal process of the computer system,and the data is executed in a queue. After the processing has been completed,the data is further transferred as the output. The processor (CPU) is thecomputer’s brain, and it is a microchip. The processor’s speed varies indifferent computers because it depends on several factors, such as the type ofCPU, memory, and motherboard.Typically, the following operations are performed on the data during theprocessing: * Arithmetic Operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, differentials, square root, etc. * Logical Operations, such as equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, opposite, etc.Output: Anything that comes out from the computer is called the output. It isthe human-readable data and displayed on the computer screen (monitor). Outputcan be stored in the storage devices if desired. The output devices helpconvert the processed data of the CPU into the human-understandable form.Storage: The device used to store the data of a computer system is called thestorage. Storage devices help to store digital data. They can store the datawhile the computer is operating and after processing. There are volatile andnon-volatile storage options. The volatile storage can store the data as longas the power source is connected, whereas non-volatile can store the datapermanently even after the power source is disconnected.

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